Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 595273, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/595273
Research Article

Study of Osteoarthritis Treatment with Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor and Steroids

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee Health Science Center and Campbell Clinic, Memphis, TN, USA
2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Memphis, TN, USA

Received 4 December 2014; Revised 6 February 2015; Accepted 12 March 2015

Academic Editor: Ye Shuang

Copyright © 2015 Hongsik Cho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Patients with osteoarthritis (OA), a condition characterized by cartilage degradation, are often treated with steroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective NSAIDs. Due to their inhibition of the inflammatory cascade, the drugs affect the balance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory cytokines, resulting in preservation of extracellular matrix (ECM). To compare the effects of these treatments on chondrocyte metabolism, TNF-α was incubated with cultured chondrocytes to mimic a proinflammatory environment with increasing production of MMP-1 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The chondrocytes were then treated with either a steroid (prednisone), a nonspecific COX inhibitor NSAID (piroxicam), or a COX-2 selective NSAID (celecoxib). Both prednisone and celecoxib decreased MMP-1 and PGE-2 production while the nonspecific piroxicam decreased only the latter. Both prednisone and celecoxib decreased gene expression of MMP-1 and increased expression of aggrecan. Increased gene expression of type II collagen was also noted with celecoxib. The nonspecific piroxicam did not show these effects. The efficacy of celecoxib in vivo was investigated using a posttraumatic OA (PTOA) mouse model. In vivo, celecoxib increases aggrecan synthesis and suppresses MMP-1. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that celecoxib and steroids exert similar effects on MMP-1 and PGE2 production in vitro and that celecoxib may demonstrate beneficial effects on anabolic metabolism in vivo.