BioMed Research International / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Effects of Light Intensity Activity on CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

Table 2

Summary of studies examining the effect of LIPA on CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers.

Marker Summary coding of studies involving physically inactive population Summary coding of studies involving populations with a medical condition Summary coding of studies involving healthy population Summary coding of all included studies

CVD risk factors (%)Effect
(0/−/+/?)
(%)Effect
(0/−/+/?)
(%)Effect
(0/−/+/?)
(%)Effect
(0/−/+/?)

Body mass0/4 (0%)No (00)0/0 (0%)NA0/4 (0%)No (00)0/5 (0%)No (00)
WC0/3 (0%)No (0)0/2 (0%)No (0)0/0 (0%)NA0/4 (0%)No (00)
BMI0/3 (0%)No (0)0/2 (0%)No (0)0/0 (0%)NA0/4 (0%)No (00)
% BF0/2 (0%)No (0)0/0 (0%)NA0/0 (0%)NA0/2 (0%)No (0)
Systolic BP3/5 (60%)Positive (++)2/3 (67%)Positive (+)0/5 (0%)No (00)3/9 (33%)No (00)
Diastolic BP2/5 (40%)Inconsistent (??)2/3 (67%)Positive (+)0/5 (0%)No (00)2/9 (22%)No (00)
Glucose1/8 (12%)No (00)1/3 (33%)No (0)0/8 (0%)No (00)3/16 (19%)No (00)
Insulin1/8 (12%)No (00)0/1 (0%)NA0/8 (0%)No (00)1/13 (8%)No (00)
Hba1C0/1 (0%)NA0/1 (0%)NA0/0 (0%)NA0/2 (0%)No (0)
Total cholesterol1/5 (20%)No (00)0/0 (0%)NA1/6 (17%)No (00)2/11(18%)No (00)
HDL cholesterol0/7 (0%)No (00)0/1 (0%)NA1/8 (12%)No (00)1/13 (8%)No (00)
LDL cholesterol0/4 (0%)No (00)0/0 (0%)NA0/3 (0%)No (0)0/6 (0%)No (00)
Triglycerides2/8 (25%)No (00)0/1 (0%)NA4/7 (57%)Inconsistent (??)5/13 (38%)Inconsistent (??)

CVD-related markers (%)Effect
(0/−/+/?)
(%)Effect
(0/−/+/?)
(%)Effect
(0/−/+/?)
(%)Effect
(0/−/+/?)

VO2 max2/5 (40%)Inconsistent (??)0/1 (0%)NA1/2 (50%)Inconsistent (?)3/8 (38%)Inconsistent (??)
Resting HR1/4 (25%)No (00)0/1 (0%)NA0/3 (0%)No (0)1/5 (20%)No (00)
CRP0/2 (0%)No (0)0/0 (0%)NA0/0 (0%)NA0/2 (0%)No (0)
Interleukin-60/3 (0%)No (0)0/2 (0%)No (0%)0/0 (0%)NA0/4 (0%)No (00)
TNF-alpha0/1 (0%)NA0/1 (0%)NA0/0 (0%)NA0/2 (0%)No (0)

= number of studies reporting difference in the expected direction.
= number of identified studies of interest.
(%) = percentage of studies reporting differences in the expected direction.
Summary effect. No effect (0): 0–33% of studies reported significant differences; inconsistent (?): 34–59% of studies reported significant differences; positive (+) or negative (−) effect: 60–100% of studies demonstrated significant differences; ≥4 studies: positive (++), negative (−−), no effect (00), and inconsistent findings (??).
CVD markers (waist-to-hip ratio, heart rate maximal, and tumor necrosis factor receptor 2) with only one study demonstrating the effect of light intensity activity were excluded in this summary table.
BF: body fat; BMI: body mass index; BP: blood pressure; CRP: C-reactive protein; CVD: cardiovascular disease; Hba1c: glycosylated hemoglobin; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; HR: heart rate; LDL; low-intensity lipoprotein; NA: not applicable; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; VO2 max: maximal oxygen uptake; WC: waist circumference.

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