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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 613216, 5 pages
Research Article

What Are the Risk Factors Associated with Urinary Retention after Orthopaedic Surgery?

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Myongji Hospital, 55 Hwasu-ro, 14 Beon-gil, Deokyang-gu, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do 412-826, Republic of Korea
2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 300 Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do 463-707, Republic of Korea
3Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 300 Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do 463-707, Republic of Korea
4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, 1071 Anyangcheon-ro, Yangcheon-gu, Seoul 158-710, Republic of Korea

Received 20 August 2014; Revised 15 December 2014; Accepted 15 December 2014

Academic Editor: Achim Langenbucher

Copyright © 2015 Ki Hyuk Sung et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study investigates the overall rate of urinary retention in a large cohort of unselected orthopaedic patients who had either general or regional anesthesia and defines the risk factors for postoperative urinary retention in that cohort of patients. A total of 15,681 patients who underwent major orthopaedic surgery with general or spinal/epidural anesthesia were included. Postoperative urinary retention was defined as any patient who required a postoperative consultation to the urologic department regarding voiding difficulty. Age at surgery, sex, type of surgery, medical history including hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and type of anesthesia were analyzed as potential predictor variables. There were 365 postoperative patients who required urology consults for urinary retention (2.3%). Older age at surgery (OR, 1.035; ), male sex (OR, 1.522; ), type of surgery (OR, 1.506; ), history of hypertension (OR, 1.288; ), and history of diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.038; ) were risk factors for urinary retention after orthopaedic surgery. Advanced age, male sex, joint replacement surgery, history of hypertension, and diabetes mellitus significantly increased the risk of urinary retention. In patients with these risk factors, careful postoperative urological management should be performed.