Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 626835, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/626835
Research Article

Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

1Laboratório de Pesquisa em Genética Toxicológica de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Federal do Piauí, 6409-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil
2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia (RENORBIO) da Universidade Federal do Piauí, 6409-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil
3Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal, Departamento de Genética e Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília, DF, Brazil
4Laboratório de Pesquisa em Neuroquímica Experimental do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Federal do Piauí, 6409-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil
5Departamento de Química, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piauí, 6409-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil

Received 14 November 2014; Revised 21 January 2015; Accepted 21 January 2015

Academic Editor: Qaisar Mahmood

Copyright © 2015 Aracelli de Sousa Leite et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. I. Dahech, W. Farah, M. Trigui et al., “Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Lycium shawii fruits extract,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 60, pp. 328–333, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. A. Hasnat, M. Pervin, and B. O. Lim, “Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice,” Molecules, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 6663–6678, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. L. Büchner, H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita, J. Linseisen et al., “Fruits and vegetables consumption and the risk of histological subtypes of lung cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC),” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 357–371, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. I. Soerjomataram, D. Oomen, V. Lemmens et al., “Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables and future cancer incidence in selected European countries,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 46, no. 14, pp. 2563–2580, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. I. Akaneme and C. C. Amaefule, “Evaluation of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss using the Allium test,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 6, no. 23, pp. 3898–3907, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  6. C. C. Munari, P. F. de Oliveira, I. M. de Souza Lima et al., “Evaluation of cytotoxic, genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Solanum lycocarpum fruits glicoalkaloid extract in V79 cells,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 3696–3701, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. I. M. C. M. Rietjens, M. J. Martena, M. G. Boersma, W. Spiegelenberg, and G. M. Alink, “Molecular mechanisms of toxicity of important food-borne phytotoxins,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 131–158, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. E. Mazzetto, D. Lomonaco, and G. Mele, “Cashew nut oil: opportunities and challenges in the context of sustainable industrial development,” Quimica Nova, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 732–741, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. M. Moo-Huchin, M. I. Moo-Huchin, R. J. Estrada-Leon et al., “Antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and phenolic content in peel from three tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico,” Food Chemistry, vol. 166, pp. 17–22, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. A. A. F. Zielinski, S. Ávila, V. Ito, A. Nogueira, G. Wosiacki, and C. W. I. Haminiuk, “The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. C510–C516, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y.-S. C. Bae-Harboe and K. S. Masterpol, “Botanical briefs: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale),” Cutis, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 174–176, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. C. P. Guissoni, I. G. Silva, R. Geris, L. C. Cunha, and H. H. G. Silva, “Larvicidal activity of Anacardium occidentale as an alternative to control Aedes aegypti and its toxicity in Rattus norvegicus,” Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 363–367, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. A. de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, S. M. M. de Moura Dantas, A. de Sousa Leite et al., “In vivo antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects of fresh and processed cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juices,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 14, no. 7-8, pp. 792–798, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. O. Ayepola and R. Ishola, “Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.),” Advances in Medical and Dental Sciences, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–3, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  15. T. D. A. D. Andrade, B. Q. Araújo, A. M. D. L. Citó et al., “Antioxidant properties and chemical composition of technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (tCNSL),” Food Chemistry, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 1044–1048, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. Michodjehoun-Mestres, J.-M. Souquet, H. Fulcrand, C. Bouchut, M. Reynes, and J.-M. Brillouet, “Monomeric phenols of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.),” Food Chemistry, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 851–857, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. V. R. Kannan, C. Sumathi, V. Balasubramanian, and N. Ramesh, “Elementary chemical profiling and antifungal properties of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Nuts,” Botany Research International, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 253–257, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  18. L. S. Parasa, S. R. Tumati, C. Kumar, S. Chicurupati, and G. Rao, “In vitro antimicrobial activity of cashew (Anacardium occidentale, L.) nuts shell liquid against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates,” International Journal of Pharmacy Science, vol. 3, pp. 436–440, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  19. A. K. Mukhopadhyay, A. K. Hati, W. Tamizharasu, and P. Sathya Babu, “Larvicidal properties of cashew nut shell liquid (Anacardium occidentale L) on immature stages of two mosquito species,” Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 257–260, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. George and R. Kuttan, “Mutagenic, carcinogenic and cocarcinogenic activity of cashewnut shell liquid,” Cancer Letters, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 11–16, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Polasa and C. Rukmini, “Mutagenicity tests of cashewnut shell liquid, rice-bran oil and other vegetable oils using the Salmonella typhimurium/microsome system,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 763–766, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. R. Acevedo, M. D. Rojas, S. D. B. Arceo et al., “Effect of 6-nonadecyl salicylic acid and its methyl ester on the induction of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes in mouse peripheral blood,” Mutation Research—Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, vol. 609, no. 1, pp. 43–46, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. S. C. Oliveira, S. M. D. Morais, D. V. Magalhães et al., “Antioxidant, larvicidal and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of cashew nut shell liquid constituents,” Acta Tropica, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 165–170, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. P. Kumar, R. Paramashivappa, P. J. Vithayathil, P. V. S. Rao, and A. S. Rao, “Process for isolation of cardanol from technical cashew (Anacardium occidentale l.) Nut shell liquid,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 16, pp. 4705–4708, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. G. De Lima, C. M. Feitosa, A. M. Citó et al., “Effects of immature cashew nut-shell liquid (Anacardium occidentale) against oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity,” Genetics and Molecular Research, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 806–818, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. N. Meyer, N. R. Ferrigni, and J. E. Putnam, “Brine shrimp: a convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents,” Planta Medica, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 31–34, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Fiskesjö, “The Allium test as a standard in environmental monitoring,” Hereditas, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 99–112, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Malini, M. A. Marin-Morales, M. S. Mantovani et al., “Determination of the antimutagenicity of an aqueous extract of Rhizophora mangle L. (Rhizophoraceae), using in vivo and in vitro test systems,” Genetics and Molecular Biology, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 176–181, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. B. S. Banu, M. Ishaq, K. Danadevi, P. Padmavathi, and Y. R. Ahuja, “DNA damage in leukocytes of mice treated with copper sulfate,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 1931–1936, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Yildiz, I. H. Cğerci, M. Konuk, A. Fatih Fidan, and H. Terzi, “Determination of genotoxic effects of copper sulphate and cobalt chloride in Allium cepa root cells by chromosome aberration and comet assays,” Chemosphere, vol. 75, no. 7, pp. 934–938, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. P. Rajendran, E. Ho, D. E. Williams, and R. H. Dashwood, “Dietary phytochemicals, HDAC inhibition, and DNA damage/repair defects in cancer cells,” Clinical Epigenetics, vol. 3, article 4, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. C. M. Kaefer and J. A. Milner, “The role of herbs and spices in cancer prevention,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 347–361, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Ramos, “Cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy: dietary polyphenols and signalling pathways,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 507–526, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Y. N. Philip, J. Buchweishaija, L. L. Mkayula, and L. Ye, “Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers using anacardic acid monomers derived from cashew nut shell liquid,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 22, pp. 8870–8876, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. Das and A. Ganesh, “Bio-oil from pyrolysis of cashew nut shell—a near fuel,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 113–117, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. Ikeda, H. Tanaka, H. Uyama, and S. Kobayashi, “Synthesis and curing behaviors of a crosslinkable polymer from cashew nut shell liquid,” Polymer, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 3475–3481, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. O. A. Attanasi, S. Berretta, C. Fiani, P. Filippone, G. Mele, and R. Saladino, “Synthesis and reactions of nitro derivatives of hydrogenated cardanol,” Tetrahedron, vol. 62, no. 25, pp. 6113–6120, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. C. Lubi and E. T. Thachil, “Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)—a versatile monomer for polymer synthesis,” Designed Monomers and Polymers, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 123–153, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. M. dos Santos Jr., D. F. Oliveira, D. A. De Carvalho et al., “Evaluation of native and exotic Brazilian plants for anticancer activity,” Journal of Natural Medicines, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 231–238, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. D. R. Arcanjo, A. C. M. Albuquerque, B. Melo-Neto, L. C. L. R. Santana, M. G. F. Medeiros, and A. M. G. L. Citó, “Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine,” Brazilian Journal of Biology, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 505–509, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. Guerra, “Ecotoxicological and chemical evaluation of phenolic compounds in industrial effluents,” Chemosphere, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1737–1747, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. B. N. Swamy, T. K. Suma, G. V. Rao, and G. C. Reddy, “Synthesis of isonicotinoylhydrazones from anacardic acid and their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis,” European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 420–424, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. Muroi, K.-I. Nihei, K. Tsujimoto, and I. Kubo, “Synergistic effects of anacardic acids and methicillin against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 583–587, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. J. Rosen, Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena, Wiley, 1989.
  45. M. R. Pimentel, D. P. De Lima, L. R. Martins, A. Beatriz, S. T. Santaella, and L. V. C. Lotufo, “Ecotoxicological analysis of cashew nut industry effluents, specifically two of its major phenolic components, cardol and cardanol,” Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Sciences, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 363–368, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  46. C. P. de Souza, N. M. Mendes, L. K. Jannotti-Passos, and J. P. Pereira, “The use of cashew nut shell of caju (Anacardium occidentale) as alternative molluscicide,” Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 459–466, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. D. Bagatini, T. G. Vasconcelos, H. D. Laughinghouse IV, A. F. Martins, and S. B. Tedesco, “Biomonitoring hospital effluents by the Allium cepa L. test,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 590–592, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. O. Herrero, J. M. Pérez Martín, P. Fernández Freire, L. Carvajal López, A. Peropadre, and M. J. Hazen, “Toxicological evaluation of three contaminants of emerging concern by use of the Allium cepa test,” Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, vol. 743, no. 1-2, pp. 20–24, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. L. V. Rossato, S. B. Tedesco, H. D. Laughinghouse IV, J. G. Farias, and F. T. Nicoloso, “Alterations in the mitotic index of Allium cepa induced by infusions of Pluchea sagittalis submitted to three different cultivation systems,” Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 857–860, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. D. S. B. S. Silva, B. Barboza, A. C. F. S. Garcia et al., “Investigation of protective effects of Erythrina velutina extract against MMS induced damages in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa,” Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 273–278, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. I. Dimitrova and E. Ivanova, “Effect of heavy metal soil pollution on some morphological and cytogenetical characteristics of flax (Linum usitatissum L.),” Journal of Balkan Ecology, vol. 4, pp. 212–218, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  52. S. Shishkova, T. L. Rost, and J. G. Dubrovsky, “Determinate root growth and meristem maintenance in angiosperms,” Annals of Botany, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 319–340, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Tkalec, K. Malarić, M. Pavlica, B. Pevalek-Kozlina, and Ž. Vidaković-Cifrek, “Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on seed germination and root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L.,” Mutation Research: Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, vol. 672, no. 2, pp. 76–81, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. M. P. Martín, A. Peropadre, Ó. Herrero, P. F. Freire, V. Labrador, and M. J. Hazen, “Oxidative DNA damage contributes to the toxic activity of propylparaben in mammalian cells,” Mutation Research—Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, vol. 702, no. 1, pp. 86–91, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. L. Jones, E. B. Blancaflor, L. V. Kochian, and S. Gilroy, “Spatial coordination of aluminium uptake, production of reactive oxygen species, callose production and wall rigidification in maize roots,” Plant, Cell & Environment, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1309–1318, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Kumari, A. Mukherjee, and N. Chandrasekaran, “Genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in Allium cepa,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 407, no. 19, pp. 5243–5246, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. K. Y. Ping, I. Darah, U. K. Yusuf, C. Yeng, and S. Sasidharan, “Genotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta: an Allium cepa assay,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 7782–7791, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. H. Briand and B. M. Kapoor, “The cytogenetic effects of sodium salicylate on the root meristem cells of Alium sativum L,” Cytologia, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 203–209, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. Ş. Türkoğlu, “Evaluation of genotoxic effects of sodium propionate, calcium propionate and potassium propionate on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 2035–2041, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. Majewska, E. Wolska, E. Śliwińska et al., “Antimitotic effect, G2/M accumulation, chromosomal and ultrastructure changes in meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. root tips treated with the extract from Rhodiola rosea roots,” Caryologia, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 337–351, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. I. Kubo, T. Nitoda, F. E. Tocoli, and I. R. Green, “Multifunctional cytotoxic agents from Anacardium occidentale,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 38–45, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. Hemshekhar, M. Sebastin Santhosh, K. Kemparaju, and K. S. Girish, “Emerging roles of anacardic acid and its derivatives: a pharmacological overview,” Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 122–132, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. I. Kubo, S. Komatsu, and M. Ochi, “Molluscicides from the cashew Anacardium occidentale and their large-scale isolation,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 970–973, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. B. Ahlemeyer, D. Selke, C. Schaper, S. Klumpp, and J. Krieglstein, “Ginkgolic acids induce neuronal death and activate protein phosphatase type-2C,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 430, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. B. Sung, M. K. Pandey, K. S. Ann et al., “Anacardic acid (6-nonadecyl salicylic acid), an inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase, suppresses expression of nuclear factor-κB-regulated gene products involved in cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and inflammation through inhibition of the inhibitory subunit of nuclear factor-KBa kinase, leading to potentiation of apoptosis,” Blood, vol. 111, no. 10, pp. 4880–4891, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. C. C. Hsieh, B. Hernández-Ledesma, and B. O. de Lumen, “Lunasin-aspirin combination against NIH/3T3 cells transformation induced by chemical carcinogens,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 107–113, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. Y.-A. Seong, P.-G. Shin, and G.-D. Kim, “Anacardic acid induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 1045–1051, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. Tan, B. Chen, L. He et al., “Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid) induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells through inhibition of androgen receptor and activation of p53 signaling,” Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 275–283, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. Y. Wu, L. He, L. Zhang et al., “Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid) inhibits tumor angiogenesis by targeting Src/FAK/Rho GTpases signaling pathway,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 339, no. 2, pp. 403–411, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. H. Huang, X. Hua, N. Liu et al., “Anacardic acid induces cell apoptosis associated with induction of ATF4-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 228, no. 3, pp. 170–178, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. B. J. Majer, T. Grummt, M. Uhl, and S. Knasmüller, “Use of plant bioassays for the detection of genotoxins in the aquatic environment,” Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 45–55, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. G. Iarmarcovai, S. Bonassi, A. Botta, R. A. Baan, and T. Orsière, “Genetic polymorphisms and micronucleus formation: a review of the literature,” Mutation Research—Reviews in Mutation Research, vol. 658, no. 3, pp. 215–233, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. D. M. Leme and M. A. Marin-Morales, “Allium cepa test in environmental monitoring: a review on its application,” Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, vol. 682, no. 1, pp. 71–81, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. I. Decordier, A. Papine, G. Plas et al., “Automated image analysis of cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei: an adapted protocol and a validated scoring procedure for biomonitoring,” Mutagenesis, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 85–93, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. A. Heddle, M. Fenech, M. Hayashi, and J. T. MacGregor, “Reflections on the development of micronucleus assays,” Mutagenesis, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 3–10, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. T. C. C. Fernandes, D. E. C. Mazzeo, and M. A. Marin-Morales, “Mechanism of micronuclei formation in polyploidizated cells of Allium cepa exposed to trifluralin herbicide,” Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 252–259, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. L. N. Carvalho, R. Annoni, P. R. P. Silva et al., “Acute, subacute toxicity and mutagenic effects of anacardic acids from cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) in mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 730–736, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. M. Fenech, “Cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay evolves into a “cytome” assay of chromosomal instability, mitotic dysfunction and cell death,” Mutation Research—Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, vol. 600, no. 1-2, pp. 58–66, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. L. Migliore, F. Coppedè, M. Fenech, and P. Thomas, “Association of micronucleus frequency with neurodegenerative diseases,” Mutagenesis, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 85–92, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. F. Buonanno, L. Quassinti, M. Bramucci et al., “The protozoan toxin climacostol inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of human tumor cell lines,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 176, no. 2-3, pp. 151–164, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. M. Romero-Jiménez, J. Campos-Sánchez, M. Analla, A. Muñoz-Serrano, and Á. Alonso-Moraga, “Genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity of some traditional medicinal herbs,” Mutation Research: Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, vol. 585, no. 1-2, pp. 147–155, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. S. H. H. Swierenga, J. A. Heddle, E. A. Sigal et al., “Recommended protocols based on a survey of current practice in genotoxicity testing laboratories, IV. Chromosome aberration and sister-chromatid exchange in Chinese hamster ovary, V79 Chinese hamster lung and human lymphocyte cultures,” Mutation Research—Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, vol. 246, no. 2, pp. 301–322, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. R. J. Singh, Plant Cytogenetics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2003.
  84. T. A. Çelik and Ö. S. Aslantürk, “Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Inula viscosa leaf extracts with Allium test,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2010, Article ID 189252, 8 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. T. Kada, T. Inoue, and N. Namiki, “Environmental desmutagens and antimutagens,” in Environmental Mutagenesis and Plant Biology, E. J. Klekowski, Ed., pp. 137–151, Praeger, New York, NY, USA, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  86. Y. Kuroda, A. K. Jain, H. Tezuka, and T. Kada, “Antimutagenicity in cultured mammalian cells,” Mutation Research—Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, vol. 267, no. 2, pp. 201–209, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S. de Flora, “Mechanisms of inhibitors of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis,” Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, vol. 402, no. 1-2, pp. 151–158, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. K. Parikka, I. R. Rowland, R. W. Welch, and K. Wähälä, “In vitro antioxidant activity and antigenotoxicity of 5-n-alkylresorcinols,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1646–1650, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. A. Kozubek and J. H. P. Tyman, “Resorcinolic lipids, the natural non-isoprenoid phenolic amphiphiles and their biological activity,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 1–26, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. L. Deszcz and A. Kozubek, “Higher cardol homologs (5-alkylresorcinols) in rye seedlings,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1483, no. 2, pp. 241–250, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. A. A. Melo Cavalcante, G. Rubensam, J. N. Picada, E. Gomes da Silva, J. C. Fonseca Moreira, and J. A. P. Henriques, “Mutagenicity, antioxidant potential, and antimutagenic activity against hydrogen peroxide of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice and cajuina,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 360–369, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. A. A. M. Cavalcante, G. Rübensam, B. Erdtmann, M. Brendel, and J. A. P. Henriques, “Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice lowers mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 in S. typhimurium TA102,” Genetics and Molecular Biology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 328–333, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus