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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 641913, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/641913
Review Article

HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders: The Relationship of HIV Infection with Physical and Social Comorbidities

1Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
3Department of Neuroscience, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA

Received 23 August 2014; Accepted 29 January 2015

Academic Editor: Viroj Wiwanitkit

Copyright © 2015 Ellen M. Tedaldi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The prevalence of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) will undoubtedly increase with the improved longevity of HIV-infected persons. HIV infection, itself, as well as multiple physiologic and psychosocial factors can contribute to cognitive impairment and neurologic complications. These comorbidities confound the diagnosis, assessment, and interventions for neurocognitive disorders. In this review, we discuss the role of several key comorbid factors that may contribute significantly to the development and progression of HIV-related neurocognitive impairment, as well as the current status of diagnostic strategies aimed at identifying HIV-infected individuals with impaired cognition and future research priorities and challenges.