Table 3: Summary of reviewed publications with S53P4 bioactive glass for spondylodesis or treatment of depressed tibial plateau fractures.

ReferenceClinical indicationNumber of treated patients with S53P4 implantsApplication formNumber of successful treatmentsComplications related to S53P4 implantStudy designFollow-up period [months]Examinations during follow-up

Frantzén et al. [33]Spondylodesis17Granules (1.0–2.0 mm)151 subjective outcome was unchanged after 132 months
1 subjective outcome was worse after 132 months
VAS score at 132 months: 3.5 (range: 0–8)
Prospective single centre cohort study132Clinical examination, VAS pain score list, subjective satisfaction grades, and examinations on CT, MRI, and DEXA

Rantakokko et al. [34]Spondylodesis10Granules (size not reported)103 subjective outcomes were fair after 120 months
5 were good after 120 months
2 were excellent after 120 months
VAS score at 120 months: 1.0 (range: 1–4)
Prospective single centre cohort study120Clinical examination, subjective patient satisfaction, VAS pain score and Oswestry disability questionnaires, and CT and DEXA evaluations

Heikkilä et al. [35]Depressed lateral tibial plateau fractures14Granules (0.83–3.15 mm)14NoneProspective single centre randomized study12Clinical examination by orthopaedic surgeons, CT evaluation, and subjective and functional evaluations