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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 686424, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/686424
Research Article

Tramadol and Tramadol+Caffeine Synergism in the Rat Formalin Test Are Mediated by Central Opioid and Serotonergic Mechanisms

1Laboratorio “Farmacología del Dolor” del Centro Universitario de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad de Colima, Avenida 25 de Julio 965, 28045 Colima, COL, Mexico
2Laboratorio de Neurofarmacología de Productos Naturales de la Dirección de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Calzada México-Xochimilco 101, 14370 México City, DF, Mexico
3Unidad de Investigación Dr. Enrico Stefani del Centro Universitario de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad de Colima, Avenida 25 de Julio 965, 28045 Colima, COL, Mexico

Received 26 January 2015; Revised 15 May 2015; Accepted 17 May 2015

Academic Editor: Kouichiro Minami

Copyright © 2015 Norma Carrillo-Munguía et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite this Article

Norma Carrillo-Munguía, Ma. Eva González-Trujano, Miguel Huerta, Xochitl Trujillo, and M. Irene Díaz-Reval, “Tramadol and Tramadol+Caffeine Synergism in the Rat Formalin Test Are Mediated by Central Opioid and Serotonergic Mechanisms,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 686424, 9 pages, 2015. doi:10.1155/2015/686424