Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 708908, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/708908
Research Article

Estimating the Impact of Workplace Bullying: Humanistic and Economic Burden among Workers with Chronic Medical Conditions

1Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, 20124 Milan, Italy
2Department of Psychiatry, University of Catania, 95131 Catania, Italy
3Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, 71121 Foggia, Italy
4Department of Mental Health, UO Cava de’Tirreni, 84013 Salerno, Italy
5Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine, University of Cagliari, 09124 Cagliari, Italy
6Department of Mental Health, ASS n.6, 33170 Pordenone, Italy
7IRCCS Maggiore Policlinico Hospital, Ca’Granda Foundation, 20124 Milan, Italy
8Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, Magna Græcia University of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
9Psychiatric Neuroscience Group, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Bari, 70125 Bari, Italy
10Department of Mental Health, ULSS 7, Conegliano, 31015 Treviso, Italy
11Unit of Psychiatry, Sant’Anna Hospital, 22100 Como, Italy
12National Association of Rheumatic Patients (ANMAR), 00153 Rome, Italy
13National Association for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (AMICI), 20131 Milan, Italy
14Department of Mental Health, AULSS Legnago Hospital, Legnago, 37045 Verona, Italy
15Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry Unit, University of Parma, 43121 Parma, Italy
16Mental Health Department, AUSL, 43126 Parma, Italy
17Department of Experimental and Clinic Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, University of Pisa, 56100 Pisa, Italy
18Depression Unit, Neuroscience Department, Fatebenefratelli Hospital, 20137 Milan, Italy
19Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
20Division of Psychiatry, Clinical Psychology and Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Department of Medicine, New Faculty of Medicine, University of Perugia, Sant’Andrea delle Fratte, 06156 Perugia, Italy
21Unit of Psychiatry, A.S.L. CN1, 12100 Cuneo, Italy
22Servizio Psichiatrico di Diagnosi e Cura (SPDC), Tivoli Hospital, 00019 Rome, Italy
23Department of Mental Health, ASL3, 16125 Genoa, Italy
24Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy
25National Association ANAP Onlus, Rivoli, 10098 Turin, Italy

Received 16 January 2015; Revised 12 March 2015; Accepted 27 April 2015

Academic Editor: Stavroula Leka

Copyright © 2015 A. Fattori et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. E. Ilmarinen, Promoting Active Ageing in the Workplace, European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Bilbao, Spain, 2012.
  2. J. E. Ilmarinen, “Aging workers,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 546–552, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. D. Mathers, “Global burden of disease in 2002: data sources, methods and results,” Global Programme on Evidence for Health Policy Discussion Paper 54, WHO, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Healthy Aging at Work, 2014, http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthyagingatwork/.
  5. M. Silverstein, “Meeting the challenges of an aging workforce,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 269–280, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Seitsamo and M. Klockars, “Aging and changes in health,” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 27–35, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, and C. L. Cooper, “The concept of bullying and harassment at work: the European tradition,” in Bullying and Harassment in the Workplace: Developments in Theory, Research, and Practice, S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, and C. L. Cooper, Eds., Taylor & Francis Group, 2nd edition, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  8. A. Hogh, E. G. Mikkelsen, and A. M. Hansen, “Individual consequences of workplace bullying/mobbing,” in Bullying and Harassment in the Workplace: Developments in Theory, Research, and Practice, S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, and C. L. Cooper, Eds., Taylor and Francis Group, 2nd edition, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  9. E. G. Mikkelsen and S. Einarsen, “Bullying in Danish work-life: prevalence and health correlates,” European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 393–413, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. S. B. Matthiesen and S. Einarsen, “Psychiatric distress and symptoms of PTSD among victims of bullying at work,” British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 335–356, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. A. Bond, M. R. Tuckey, and M. F. Dollard, “Psychosocial safety climate, workplace bullying, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress,” Organization Development Journal, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 37–56, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. R.-M. Hallberg and M. K. Strandmark, “Health consequences of workplace bullying: experiences from the perspective of employees in the public service sector,” International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 109–119, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. B. Nielsen, N. Magerøy, J. Gjerstad, and S. Einarsen, “Workplace bullying and subsequent health problems,” Tidsskrift for Den norske laegeforening, vol. 134, no. 12-13, pp. 1233–1238, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Einarsen and E. G. Mikkelsen, “Individual effects of exposure to bullying at work,” in Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace: International Perspectives in Research and Practice, S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, and C. L. Cooper, Eds., pp. 127–144, Taylor & Francis, London, UK, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. M. B. Nielsen and S. Einarsen, “Outcomes of exposure to workplace bullying: a meta-analytic review,” Work and Stress, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 309–332, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. Hoel, M. J. Sheehan, C. L. Cooper, and S. Einarsenin, “Organisaional effects of workplace bullying,” in Bullying and Harassment in the Workplace: Developments in Theory, Research, and Practice, S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, and C. L. Cooper, Eds., Taylor & Francis, 2nd edition, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  17. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA), Calculating the Cost of Work-Related Stress and Psychosocial Risks, European Risk Observatory Literature Review, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg City, Luxembourgh, 2014.
  18. S. L. Gortmaker, D. K. Walker, M. Weitzman, and A. M. Sobol, “Chronic conditions, socioeconomic risks, and behavioral-problems in children and adolescents,” Pediatrics, vol. 85, pp. 267–276, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  19. J. Van Cleave and M. M. Davis, “Bullying and peer victimization among children with special health care needs,” Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. e1212–e1219, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Nordhagen, A. Nielsen, H. Stigum, and L. Köhler, “Parental reported bullying among Nordic children: a population-based study,” Child: Care, Health and Development, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 693–701, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. I. Pittet, A. Berchtold, C. Akré, P.-A. Michaud, and J.-C. Surís, “Are adolescents with chronic conditions particularly at risk for bullying?” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 95, no. 9, pp. 711–716, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. B. Finne, S. Knardahl, and B. Lau, “Workplace bullying and mental distress—a prospective study of Norwegian employees,” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 276–287, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. B. Nielsen, J. Hetland, S. B. Matthiesen, and S. Einarsen, “Longitudinal relationships between workplace bullying and psychological distress,” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 38–46, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. I. Reknes, S. Pallesen, N. Magerøy, B. E. Moen, B. Bjorvatn, and S. Einarsen, “Exposure to bullying behaviors as a predictor of mental health problems among Norwegian nurses: results from the prospective SUSSH-survey,” International Journal of Nursing Studies, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 479–487, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Kivimäki, M. Virtanen, M. Vartia, M. Elovainio, J. Vahtera, and L. Keltikangas-Järvinen, “Workplace bullying and the risk of cardiovascular disease and depression,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 779–783, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Kivimäki, M. Elovainio, and J. Vahtera, “Workplace bullying and sickness absence in hospital staff,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 656–660, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. A. Geuskens, K. M. O. Hengel, L. L. J. Koppes, and J. F. Ybema, “Predictors of the willingness and the ability to continue working until the age of 65 years,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 572–578, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Gabrielle, D. Jackson, and J. Mannix, “Adjusting to personal and organisational change: views and experiences of female nurses aged 40–60 years,” Collegian, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 85–91, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Uegaki, M. C. de Bruijne, A. J. van der Beek, W. van Mechelen, and M. W. van Tulder, “Economic evaluations of occupational health interventions from a company's perspective: a systematic review of methods to estimate the cost of health-related productivity loss,” Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 90–99, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. B. Nielsen, G. Notelaers, and S. Einarsen, “Measuring exposure to workplace bullying,” in Bullying and Harassment in the Workplace: Developments in Theory, Research, and Practice, S. Einarse, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, and C. L. Cooper, Eds., Taylor & Francis Group, 2nd edition, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  31. S. Einarsen and A. Skogstad, “Bullying at work: epidemiological findings in public and private organizations,” European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 190–191, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. G. Apolone, P. Mosconi, and L. Quattrocchi, Questionario Sullo Stato di Salute SF-12, Versione Italiana, 2005, edited by: Guerini e Associati.
  33. J. E. Ware Jr., M. Kosinski, and S. D. Keller, “A 12-item short-form health survey: construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity,” Medical Care, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 220–233, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. M. D'Souza, L. Strazdins, L. L.-Y. Lim, D. H. Broom, and B. Rodgers, “Work and health in a contemporary society: demands, control, and insecurity,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 849–854, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. E. Brazier, R. Harper, N. M. B. Jones et al., “Validating the SF-36 health survey questionnaire: new outcome measure for primary care,” British Medical Journal, vol. 305, no. 6846, pp. 160–164, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. C. Reilly, A. S. Zbrozek, and E. M. Dukes, “The validity and reproducibility of a work productivity and activity impairment instrument,” PharmacoEconomics, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 353–365, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. World Bank, World Development Indicators Database, 2011, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GNIPC.pdf.
  38. K. Tuomi, J. Ilmarinen, A. Jahkola, L. Katajarinne, and A. Tulkki, Work Ability Index, Finish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland, 2nd edition, 1998.
  39. International Labour Organization (ILO), “Resolution concerning the International Classification of Status in Employment (ICSE),” in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference of Labour Statisticians, 1993, http://www.ilo.org/global/statistics-and-databases/statistics-overview-and-topics/status-in-employment/current-guidelines/lang–en/index.htm.
  40. R. C. Kessler and E. J. Bromet, “The epidemiology of depression across cultures,” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 34, pp. 119–138, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. Di Domenicantonio, G. Cappai, M. Arcà et al., “Occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease in central Italy: a study based on health information systems,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 777–782, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. Saraceno, R. Mannheimer, and S. Chimenti, “Regional distribution of psoriasis in Italy,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 324–329, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. F. Salaffi, R. De Angelis, W. Grassi, MArche Pain Prevalence, and INvestigation Group (MAPPING) study, “Prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions in an Italian population sample: results of a regional community-based study. I. The MAPPING study,” Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 819–828, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. Giorgi, A. Arenas, and J. M. Leon-Perez, “An operative measure of workplace bullying: the negative acts questionnaire across Italian companies,” Industrial Health, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 686–695, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. H. Leymann, “The content and development of mobbing at work,” European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 165–184, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. L. Keashly and K. Jagatic, “The nature, extent and impact of emotional abuse in the workplace: results of a state-wide survey,” in Proceedings of the Meeting of the Academy of Management, Toronto, Canada, 2002.
  47. M. B. Nielsen, S. B. Matthiesen, and S. Einarsen, “The impact of methodological moderators on prevalence rates of workplace bullying. A meta-analysis,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 955–979, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. B. Nielsen, Metodological issues in research on workplace bullying: operationalizations, measurements and samples [Ph.D. thesis], University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, 2009.
  49. K. Kruntorádová, J. Klimeš, L. Šedová, J. Štolfa, T. Doležal, and A. Petříková, “Work productivity and costs related to patients with ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis,” Value in Health Regional Issues C, vol. 4, pp. 100–106, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Beck, A. L. Crain, L. I. Solberg et al., “Severity of depression and magnitude of productivity loss,” Annals of Family Medicine, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 305–311, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Vergara, A. Montserrat, F. Casellas et al., “A new validation of the spanish work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire-Crohn's disease version,” Value in Health, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 859–861, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. B. Kimball, J. Signorovitch, J. Xie et al., “The effects of adalimumab treatment and psoriasis severity on self-reported work productivity and activity impairment for patients with moderate to severe psoriasis,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. e67–e76, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. Leka, M. Vartia, J. Hassard et al., “Best practice in interventions for the prevention and management of work-related stress and qorkplace violence and bullying,” in The European Framework for Psychosocial Risk Management: PRIMA-EF, S. Leka and T. Cox, Eds., Institute of Work, Health and Organizatons (I-WHO), Nottingham, UK, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  54. H. Hoel, C. Rayner, and C. L. Cooper, “Workplace bullying,” in International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, C. L. Cooper and I. T. Robertson, Eds., pp. 195–230, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  55. A. Ortega, K. B. Christensen, A. Hogh, R. Rugulies, and V. Borg, “One-year prospective study on the effect of workplace bullying on long-term sickness absence,” Journal of Nursing Management, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 752–759, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. J. O'Connell, E. Calvert, and D. Watson, Bullying in the Workplace: Survey Reports, Department of Enterprise Trade and Employment, Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin, Ireland, 2007.
  57. C. M. Berry, A. M. Lelchook, and M. A. Clark, “A meta-analysis of the interrelationships between employee lateness, absenteeism, and turnover: implications for models of withdrawal behavior,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 678–699, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. N. R. Ziebarth, “Long-term absenteeism and moral hazard—evidence from a natural experiment,” Labour Economics, vol. 24, pp. 277–292, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Sliter, K. Sliter, and S. Jex, “The employee as a punching bag: the effect of multiple sources of incivility on employee withdrawal behavior and sales performance,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 121–139, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. J. Lerner, S. Levine, S. Malspeis, and R. B. D'Agostino, “Job strain and health-related quality of life in a national sample,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 84, no. 10, pp. 1580–1585, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. A. Stansfeld, H. Bosma, H. Hemingway, and M. G. Marmot, “Psychosocial work characteristics and social support as predictors of SF-36 health functioning: the Whitehall II study,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 247–257, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. Neri, L. A. R. Rey, M. Gallieni et al., “Occupational stress is associated with impaired work ability and reduced quality of life in patients with chronic kidney failure,” The International Journal of Artificial Organs, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 291–298, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. C. Fekete, M. Wahrendorf, J. D. Reinhardt, M. W. M. Post, and J. Siegrist, “Work stress and quality of life in persons with disabilities from four European countries: the case of spinal cord injury,” Quality of Life Research, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1661–1671, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. J. Walters and J. E. Brazier, “What is the relationship between the minimally important difference and health state utility values? The case of the SF-6D,” Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, vol. 1, article 4, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Brazier, J. Roberts, A. Tsuchiya, and J. Busschbach, “A comparison of the EQ-5D and SF-6D across seven patient groups,” Health Economics, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 873–884, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. A. H. Gerhards, L. E. De Graaf, L. E. Jacobs et al., “Economic evaluation of online computerised cognitive-behavioural therapy without support for depression in primary care: randomised trial,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 196, no. 4, pp. 310–318, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. C. A. Marra, J. C. Woolcott, J. A. Kopec et al., “A comparison of generic, indirect utility measures (the HUI2, HUI3, SF-6D, and the EQ-5D) and disease-specific instruments (the RAQoL and the HAQ) in rheumatoid arthritis,” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 1571–1582, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. V. Strand, V. Sharp, A. S. Koenig et al., “Comparison of health-related quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis and effects of etanercept treatment,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 71, no. 7, pp. 1143–1150, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. J. Buxton, L. A. Lacey, B. G. Feagan, T. Niecko, D. W. Miller, and R. J. Townsend, “Mapping from disease-specific measures to utility: an analysis of the relationships between the inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire and Crohn's disease activity index in Crohn's disease and measures of utility,” Value in Health, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 214–220, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. W. B. F. Brouwer, N. J. A. van Exel, M. A. Koopmanschap, and F. F. H. Rutten, “Productivity costs before and after absence from work: as important as common?” Health Policy, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 173–187, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus