Table 1: Demographic and clinical characteristics.

Items T2DM patients
()
Healthy controls
()
value
MeanSDMeanSD

Age, years59.58.256.27.10.106
Gender, male : female16 : 1413 : 150.599
Education levels, years9.83.810.63.20.299
Diabetes duration, years10.05.8
History of smoking, yes : no4 : 266 : 220.415
BMI, kg/m225.32.724.72.40.329
Systolic BP, mmHg129.019.7129.515.00.895
Diastolic BP, mmHg78.49.480.57.40.342
HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)8.0 (64)1.6 (17.5)5.8 (40)0.6 (6.6)<0.00
Fasting glucose, mmol/L8.32.46.00.9<0.00
Fasting serum insulin, U/L11.04.05.62.1<0.00
HOMA-IR3.81.11.50.5<0.00
Triglyceride, mmol/L1.50.71.40.70.814
Total cholesterol, mmol/L5.51.25.70.8 0.576
LDL-C, mmol/L3.40.83.40.50.996
HDL-C, mmol/L1.40.31.40.30.987
Intima-media thickness, mm1.00.20.90.20.059
Blood pressure lowering medications, yes : no10 : 208 : 200.695
Cholesterol lowering medications, yes : no9 : 213 : 250.07

.
HOMA2-IR, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.