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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 720856, 8 pages
Review Article

Cognitive-Motor Interference in Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review of Evidence, Correlates, and Consequences

Motor Control Research Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 906 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802, USA

Received 20 October 2014; Revised 29 January 2015; Accepted 3 February 2015

Academic Editor: Erwin van Wegen

Copyright © 2015 Douglas A. Wajda and Jacob J. Sosnoff. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) regularly exhibit deficits in motor and cognitive function. Recent evidence suggests that these impairments are compounded when motor and cognitive task are performed simultaneously such as walking while talking. The changes incurred during simultaneous performance of motor and cognitive tasks are a result of cognitive-motor interference (CMI) and operationalized as dual task costs (DTC). Recently in MS, research has been conducted to understand and analyze the impact of CMI. The purpose of this paper was to review the current literature related to the evidence, correlates, and consequences of CMI in MS. Relevant literature was collected from the results of a PubMed search for terms including “Cognitive-motor interference” or “Cognitive-motor interaction” or “Dual task” and “multiple sclerosis.” Overall, 20 papers were included for review which focused on CMI during balance and walking tasks. The finding that there is a lack of evidence pertaining to changes in the cognitive domain as well as to the specific consequences of CMI in MS was noted. Future work should aim to fill these gaps and ultimately investigate the usefulness of targeted interventions in reducing the deleterious effects of CMI in individuals with MS.