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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 728145, 6 pages
Research Article

The Effects of Cold and Lower Body Negative Pressure on Cardiovascular Homeostasis

1Exercise and Environmental Physiology Laboratory, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA
2Department of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana at Monroe, 700 University Avenue, Monroe, LA 71209, USA
3Farquhar College of Arts and Sciences, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale-Davie, FL 33314, USA
4Department of Kinesiology and Health, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY 41099, USA

Received 15 August 2014; Revised 18 November 2014; Accepted 20 November 2014

Academic Editor: David Bellar

Copyright © 2015 David J. Kean et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine how cold exposure and lower body negative pressure effected cardiovascular variables. Methods. Eleven males (20.3 years ± 2.7) underwent two 20-minute exposures to LBNP. During the 2 trials, the subjects were exposed to cold air (10°C) (COLD) and to ambient temperature (23°C) (AMB). The trials consisted of a 100-minute pre-LBNP period followed by a 20-minute exposure to LBNP and then a 15-minute recovery period. Cardiovascular variables were recorded every 30 minutes using bioimpedance. Results. When LBNP was applied during the AMB trials, stroke volume immediately decreased. During the COLD trial, there was a five-minute delay before the decrease in stroke volume. Heart rate increased immediately after LBNP initiation during the AMB trials but there was a delay in the increase during the COLD trials. That same pattern was followed with mean arterial blood pressures. Cerebral oxygenation was significantly lower throughout the COLD trial as compared to the AMB trials. Six subjects reported symptoms of syncope or presyncope during the AMB trials but there were no reports of symptoms during the COLD trials. Conclusion. From analysis of this data, cold improved the subject’s tolerance to LBNP.