Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 736104, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/736104
Review Article

Role and Importance of IGF-1 in Traumatic Brain Injuries

1Institute of Neurosurgery, Catholic University School of Medicine, Largo Agostino Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
2Sant’Anna Hospital, Via Aldo Moro 8, 44100 Ferrara, Italy

Received 27 June 2014; Accepted 24 December 2014

Academic Editor: Leon Spicer

Copyright © 2015 Annunziato Mangiola et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. K. Dash, J. Zhao, G. Hergenroeder, and A. N. Moore, “Biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis, and evaluation of treatment efficacy for traumatic brain injury,” Neurotherapeutics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 100–114, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. V. DeFazio, R. A. Rammo, J. R. Robles, H. M. Bramlett, W. D. Dietrich, and M. R. Bullock, “The potential utility of blood-derived biochemical markers as indicators of early clinical trends following severe traumatic brain injury,” World Neurosurgery, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 151–158, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Giacoppo, P. Bramanti, M. Barresi et al., “Predictive biomarkers of recovery in traumatic brain injury,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 470–477, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. Richmond and A. D. Rogol, “Traumatic brain injury: endocrine consequences in children and adults,” Endocrine, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 3–8, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. M. Kochanek, R. S. B. Clark, R. A. Ruppel et al., “Biochemical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms in the evolution of secondary damage after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children: lessons learned from the bedside,” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 4–19, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. B. J. Zink, J. Szmydynger-Chodobska, and A. Chodobski, “Emerging concepts in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury,” Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 741–756, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. M. Bramlett, W. Dalton Dietrich, E. J. Green, and R. Busto, “Chronic histopathological consequences of fluid-percussion brain injury in rats: effects of post-traumatic hypothermia,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 190–199, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. E. Dixon, P. M. Kochanek, H. Q. Yan et al., “One-year study of spatial memory performance, brain morphology, and cholinergic markers after moderate controlled cortical impact in rats,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 109–122, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. T. Forde, S. K. Karri, A. M. H. Young, and C. S. Ogilvy, “Predictive markers in traumatic brain injury: opportunities for a serum biosignature,” British Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 8–15, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. G. Strathmann, S. Schulte, K. Goerl, and D. J. Petron, “Blood-based biomarkers for traumatic brain injury: evaluation of research approaches, available methods and potential utility from the clinician and clinical laboratory perspectives,” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 47, no. 10-11, pp. 876–888, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. K. Wagner, E. H. McCullough, C. Niyonkuru et al., “Acute serum hormone levels: characterization and prognosis after severe traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 871–888, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. Werner and D. LeRoith, “Insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors in the brain: physiological and pathological aspects,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1947–1953, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. S. Favelyukis, J. H. Till, S. R. Hubbard, and W. T. Miller, “Structure and autoregulation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor kinase,” Nature Structural Biology, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1058–1063, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. I. Arnaldez and L. J. Helman, “Targeting the insulin growth factor receptor 1,” Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 527–542, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. Bondy, H. Werner, C. T. Roberts Jr., and D. LeRoith, “Cellular pattern of type-I insulin-like growth factor receptor gene expression during maturation of the rat brain: comparison with insulin-like growth factors I and II,” Neuroscience, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 909–923, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. E. Vos, H. P. F. Koppeschaar, W. R. de Vries, and J. H. J. Wokke, “Insulin-like growth factor-I: clinical studies,” Drugs of Today, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 79–90, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Adem, S. S. Jossan, R. d'Argy et al., “Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptors in the human brain: quantitative autoradiographic localization,” Brain Research, vol. 503, no. 2, pp. 299–303, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Coculescu, “Blood-brain barrier for human growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I,” Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 113–124, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. Anlar, K. A. Sullivan, and E. L. Feldman, “Insulin-like growth factor-I and central nervous system development,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 31, no. 2-3, pp. 120–125, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. M. Niblock, J. K. Brunso-Bechtold, and D. R. Riddle, “Insulin-like growth factor I stimulates dendritic growth in primary somatosensory cortex,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 4165–4176, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. D. Beck, L. Powell-Braxton, H.-R. Widmer, J. Valverde, and F. Hefti, “Igf1 gene disruption results in reduced brain size, CNS hypomyelination, and loss of hippocampal granule and striatal parvalbumin-containing neurons,” Neuron, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 717–730, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. J. Lichtenwalner, M. E. Forbes, S. A. Bennett, C. D. Lynch, W. E. Sonntag, and D. R. Riddle, “Intracerebroventricular infusion of insulin-like growth factor-I ameliorates the age-related decline in hippocampal neurogenesis,” Neuroscience, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 603–613, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. K. Madathil, H. N. Evans, and K. E. Saatman, “Temporal and regional changes in IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling in the mouse brain after traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 95–107, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Edwall, M. Schalling, E. Jennische, and G. Norstedt, “Induction of insulin-like growth factor I messenger ribonucleic acid during regeneration of rat skeletal muscle,” Endocrinology, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 820–825, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H.-A. Hansson, E. Jennische, and A. Skottner, “Regenerating endothelial cells express insulin-like growth factor-I immunoreactivity after arterial injury,” Cell and Tissue Research, vol. 250, no. 3, pp. 499–505, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. D. Stiles, I. R. S. Sosenko, A. J. D'Ercole, and B. T. Smith, “Relation of kidney tissue somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor I to postnephrectomy renal growth in the rat,” Endocrinology, vol. 117, no. 6, pp. 2397–2401, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Logan, J. J. Oliver, and M. Berry, “Growth factors in CNS repair and regeneration,” Progress in Growth Factor Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 379–405, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  28. E. J. Beilharz, V. C. Russo, G. Butler et al., “Co-ordinated and cellular specific induction of the components of the IGF/IGFBP axis in the rat brain following hypoxic-ischemic injury,” Molecular Brain Research, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 119–134, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Schwab, M. Spranger, S. Krempien, W. Hacke, and M. Bettendorf, “Plasma insulin-like growth factor I and IGF binding protein 3 levels in patients with acute cerebral ischemic injury,” Stroke, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1744–1748, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. X. S. Li, M. Williams, and W. P. Bartlett, “Induction of IGF-1 mRNA expression following traumatic injury to the postnatal brain,” Molecular Brain Research, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 92–96, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. C. Sandberg Nordqvista, H. von Holst, S. Holmin, V. R. Sara, B.-M. Bellander, and M. Schalling, “Increase of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF binding protein-2 and -4 mRNAs following cerebral contusion,” Molecular Brain Research, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 285–293, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. J. Walter, M. Berry, D. J. Hill, and A. Logan, “Spatial and temporal changes in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis indicate autocrine/paracrine actions of IGF-I within wounds of the rat brain,” Endocrinology, vol. 138, no. 7, pp. 3024–3034, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. L. Yao, N. R. West, C. A. Bondy et al., “Cryogenic spinal cord injury induces astrocytic gene expression of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 during myelin regeneration,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 647–659, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. Denti, V. Annoni, E. Cattadori et al., “Insulin-like growth factor 1 as a predictor of ischemic stroke outcome in the elderly,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. 312–317, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Guan, L. Bennet, P. D. Gluckman, and A. J. Gunn, “Insulin-like growth factor-1 and post-ischemic brain injury,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 443–462, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. R. Schäbitz, T. T. Hoffmann, S. Heiland et al., “Delayed neuroprotective effect of insulin-like growth factor-I after experimental transient focal cerebral ischemia monitored with MRI,” Stroke, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1226–1233, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. J. Westwood, A. Beiser, C. DeCarli et al., “Insulin-like growth factor-1 and risk of Alzheimer dementia and brain atrophy,” Neurology, vol. 82, no. 18, pp. 1613–1619, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. S. Doré, K. Satyabrata, and R. Quirion, “Rediscovering an old friend, IFG-I: potential use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 326–331, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. J. D'Ercole, P. Ye, A. S. Calikoglu, and G. Gutierrez-Ospina, “The role of the insulin-like growth factors in the central nervous system,” Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 227–255, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. I. Kazanis, M. Giannakopoulou, H. Philippidis, and F. Stylianopoulou, “Alterations in IGF-I, BDNF and NT-3 levels following experimental brain trauma and the effect of IGF-I administration,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 186, no. 2, pp. 221–234, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. I. Dusart and M. E. Schwab, “Secondary cell death and the inflammatory reaction after dorsal hemisection of the rat spinal cord,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 712–724, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. N. Latov, G. Nilaver, E. A. Zimmerman et al., “Fibrillary astrocytes proliferate in response to brain injury: a study combining immunoperoxidase technique for glial fibrillary acidic protein and radioautography of tritiated thymidine,” Developmental Biology, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 381–384, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. K. Madathil, S. W. Carlson, J. M. Brelsfoard, P. Ye, A. J. D'Ercole, and K. E. Saatman, “Astrocyte-specific overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-1 protects hippocampal neurons and reduces behavioral deficits following traumatic brain injury in mice,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 6, Article ID e67204, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. Faber-Elman, A. Solomon, J. A. Abraham, M. Marikovsky, and M. Schwartz, “Involvement of wound-associated factors in rat brain astrocyte migratory response to axonal injury: in vitro simulation,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 162–171, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. A. Werther, M. Abate, A. Hogg et al., “Localization of insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA in rat brain by in situ hybridization—relationship to IGF-I receptors,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 773–778, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. V. Rubovitch, S. Edut, R. Sarfstein, H. Werner, and C. G. Pick, “The intricate involvement of the Insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling in mild traumatic brain injury in mice,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 299–303, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. W.-H. Zheng, S. Kar, S. Doré, and R. Quirion, “Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1): a neuroprotective trophic factor acting via the Akt kinase pathway,” Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementum, no. 60, pp. 261–272, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. V. Rubovitch, A. Shachar, H. Werner, and C. G. Pick, “Does IGF-1 administration after a mild traumatic brain injury in mice activate the adaptive arm of ER stress?” Neurochemistry International, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 443–446, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Shimasaki and N. Ling, “Identification and molecular characterization of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-1, -2, -3, -4, -5 and -6),” Progress in Growth Factor Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 243–266, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  50. W. Ni, K. Rajkumar, J. I. Nagy, and L. J. Murphy, “Impaired brain development and reduced astrocyte response to injury in transgenic mice expressing IGF binding protein-1,” Brain Research, vol. 769, no. 1, pp. 97–107, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A.-C. Sandberg Nordqvist, S. Holmin, M. Nilsson, T. Mathiesen, and M. Schalling, “MK-801 inhibits the cortical increase in IGF-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 expression following trauma,” NeuroReport, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 455–460, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Finset, A. W. Anke, E. Hofft, K. S. Roaldsen, J. Pillgram-Larsen, and J. K. Stanghelle, “Cognitive performance in multiple trauma patients 3 years after injury,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 576–583, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. J. Hamm, B. G. Lyeth, L. W. Jenkins, D. M. O'Dell, and B. R. Pike, “Selective cognitive impairment following traumatic brain injury in rats,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 59, no. 1-2, pp. 169–173, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Margulies, “The postconcussion syndrome after mild head trauma Part II: is migraine underdiagnosed?” Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 495–499, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. Ozdemir, B. Baykara, I. Aksu et al., “Relationship between circulating IGF-1 levels and traumatic brain injury-induced hippocampal damage and cognitive dysfunction in immature rats,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 507, no. 1, pp. 84–89, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. A. I. Åberg, N. D. Åberg, H. Hedbäcker, J. Oscarsson, and P. S. Eriksson, “Peripheral infusion of IGF-I selectively induces neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 2896–2903, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. E. Schober, B. Block, J. C. Beachy, K. D. Statler, C. C. Giza, and R. H. Lane, “Early and sustained increase in the expression of hippocampal IGF-1, but Not EPO, in a developmental rodent model of traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 2011–2020, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. B. Baykara, I. Aksu, E. Buyuk et al., “Progesterone treatment decreases traumatic brain injury induced anxiety and is correlated with increased serum IGF-1 levels; Prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus neuron density; And reduced serum corticosterone levels in immature rats,” Biotechnic and Histochemistry, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 250–257, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. N. D. Aberg, K. G. Brywe, and J. Isgaard, “Aspects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I related to neuroprotection, regeneration, and functional plasticity in the adult brain,” TheScientificWorldJournal, vol. 6, pp. 53–80, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  60. S. L. Smith, P. K. Andrus, J.-R. Zhang, and E. D. Hall, “Direct measurement of hydroxyl radicals, lipid peroxidation, and blood- brain barrier disruption following unilateral cortical impact head injury in the rat,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 393–404, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. K. E. Saatman, K. J. Feeko, R. L. Pape, and R. Raghupathi, “Differential behavioral and histopathological responses to graded cortical impact injury in mice,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 1241–1253, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. K. E. Saatman, P. C. Contreras, D. H. Smith et al., “Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) improves both neurological motor and cognitive outcome following experimental brain injury,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 418–427, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. I. Kazanis, E. Bozas, H. Philippidis, and F. Stylianopoulou, “Neuroprotective effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) following a penetrating brain injury in rats,” Brain Research, vol. 991, no. 1-2, pp. 34–45, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. T. A. West and S. Sharp, “Neuroendocrine dysfunction following mild TBI: when to screen for it,” Journal of Family Practice, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 11–16, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. F. Tanriverdi, K. Unluhizarci, and F. Kelestimur, “Pituitary function in subjects with mild traumatic brain injury: a review of literature and proposal of a screening strategy,” Pituitary, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 146–153, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. F. Tanriverdi, K. Unluhizarci, I. Kocyigit et al., “Brief communication: pituitary volume and function in competing and retired male boxers,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 148, no. 11, pp. 827–831, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. G. Aimaretti, M. R. Ambrosio, C. Di Somma et al., “Residual pituitary function after brain injury-induced hypopituitarism: a prospective 12-month study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 6085–6092, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. R. Dusick, C. Wang, P. Cohan, R. Swerdloff, and D. F. Kelly, “Pathophysiology of hypopituitarism in the setting of brain injury,” Pituitary, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 2–9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. Benvenga, A. Campenní, R. M. Ruggeri, and F. Trimarchi, “Hypopituitarism secondary to head trauma,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 1353–1361, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. D. F. Kelly, I. T. Gaw Gonzalo, P. Cohan, N. Berman, R. Swerdloff, and C. Wang, “Hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a preliminary report,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 743–752, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. X.-Q. Yuan and C. E. Wade, “Neuroendocrine abnormalities in patients with traumatic brain injury,” Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 209–230, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. R. Chiolero, Y. Schutz, N. de Tribolet, J.-P. Felber, J. Freeman, and E. Jequier, “Plasma pituitary hormone levels in severe trauma with or without head injury,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1368–1374, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. H. Matsuura, S. Nakazawa, and I. Wakabayashi, “Thyrotropin-releasing hormone provocative release of prolactin and thyrotropin in acute head injury,” Neurosurgery, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 791–795, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. P. D. Woolf, L. A. Lee, R. W. Hamill, and J. V. McDonald, “Thyroid test abnormalities in traumatic brain injury: correlation with neurologic impairment and sympathetic nervous system activation,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 201–208, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. I. Dimopoulou, S. Tsagarakis, M. Theodorakopoulou et al., “Endocrine abnormalities in critical care patients with moderate-to-severe head trauma: incidence, pattern and predisposing factors,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1051–1057, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. S. A. Lieberman, A. L. Oberoi, C. R. Gilkison, B. E. Masel, and R. J. Urban, “Prevalence of neuroendocrine dysfunction in patients recovering from traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 2752–2756, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. Bondanelli, M. R. Ambrosio, A. Margutti et al., “Evidence for integrity of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in patients with severe head trauma during rehabilitation,” Metabolism, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 1363–1369, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. H. J. Schneider, M. Schneider, B. Saller et al., “Prevalence of anterior pituitary insufficiency 3 and 12 months after traumatic brain injury,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 259–265, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. W. van der Eerden, M. T. B. Twickler, F. C. G. J. Sweep et al., “Should anterior pituitary function be tested during follow-up of all patients presenting at the emergency department because of traumatic brain injury?” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 19–28, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. K. T. Rockich, J. C. Hatton, R. J. Kryscio, B. A. Young, and R. A. Blouin, “Effect of recombinant human growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 administration on IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein-3 levels in brain injury,” Pharmacotherapy, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1432–1436, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. E. Fernandez-Rodriguez, I. Bernabeu, A. I. Castro, F. Kelestimur, and F. F. Casanueva, “Hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury: determining factors for diagnosis,” Frontiers in Endocrinology, vol. 2, article 25, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. V. Gasco, F. Prodam, L. Pagano et al., “Hypopituitarism following brain injury: when does it occur and how best to test?” Pituitary, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 20–24, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. N. E. Kokshoorn, M. J. E. Wassenaar, N. R. Biermasz et al., “Hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury: prevalence is affected by the use of different dynamic tests and different normal values,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 11–18, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. Munoz and R. Urban, “Neuroendocrine consequences of traumatic brain injury,” Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 354–358, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. Z. Olivecrona, P. Dahlqvist, and L.-O. D. Koskinen, “Acute neuro-endocrine profile and prediction of outcome after severe brain injury,” Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, vol. 21, article 33, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. A. Agha, B. Rogers, M. Sherlock et al., “Anterior pituitary dysfunction in survivors of traumatic brain injury,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 4929–4936, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. T. Bushnik, J. Englander, and L. Katznelson, “Fatigue after TBI: association with neuroendocrine abnormalities,” Brain Injury, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 559–566, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. Agha, B. Rogers, D. Mylotte et al., “Neuroendocrine dysfunction in the acute phase of traumatic brain injury,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 584–591, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. G. Aimaretti, M. R. Ambrosio, C. Di Somma et al., “Traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage are conditions at high risk for hypopituitarism: screening study at 3 months after the brain injury,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 320–326, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. M. R. H. Abadi, M. Ghodsi, M. Merazin, and H. Roozbeh, “Pituitary function impairment after moderate traumatic brain injury,” Acta Medica Iranica, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 438–441, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J. M. Hackl, M. Gottardis, C. Wieser et al., “Endocrine abnormalities in severe traumatic brain injury—a cue to prognosis in severe craniocerebral trauma?” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 25–29, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. J. Wagner, J. R. Dusick, D. L. McArthur et al., “Acute gonadotroph and somatotroph hormonal suppression after traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1007–1019, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. F. Della Corte, A. Mancini, D. Valle et al., “Provocative hypothalamopituitary axis tests in severe head injury: correlations with severity and prognosis,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1419–1426, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. M. Jeevanandam, N. J. Holaday, and S. R. Petersen, “Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in acute trauma patients,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 1205–1208, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. R. Wildburger, N. Zarkovic, G. Leb, S. Borovic, K. Zarkovic, and F. Tatzber, “Post-traumatic changes in insulin-like growth factor type 1 and growth hormone in patients with bone fractures and traumatic brain injury,” Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, vol. 113, no. 3-4, pp. 119–126, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. G. L. Smith, “Somatomedin carrier proteins,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 83–89, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. D. R. Clemmons and L. E. Underwood, “Nutritional regulation of IGF-I and IGF binding proteins,” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 11, pp. 393–412, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. M. A. Hynes, J. J. van Wijk, P. J. Brooks, A. J. D'Ercole, M. Jansen, and P. K. Lund, “Growth hormone dependence of somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-II messenger ribonucleic acids,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 233–242, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. W. L. Lowe Jr., M. Adamo, H. Werner, C. T. Roberts Jr., and D. LeRoith, “Regulation by fasting of rat insulin-like growth factor I and its receptor. Effects on gene expression and binding,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 619–626, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. F. Tanriverdi, H. Ulutabanca, K. Unluhizarci, A. Selcuklu, F. F. Casanueva, and F. Kelestimur, “Three years prospective investigation of anterior pituitary function after traumatic brain injury: a pilot study,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 573–579, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. H. J. Schneider, U. Pagotto, and G. K. Stalla, “Central effects of the somatotropic system,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 149, no. 5, pp. 377–392, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. E. Molitch, D. R. Clemmons, S. Malozowski, G. R. Merriam, and M. L. Vance, “Evaluation and treatment of adult growth hormone deficiency: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 1587–1609, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. B. M. Biller, M. H. Samuels, A. Zagar et al., “Sensitivity and specificity of six tests for the diagnosis of adult GH deficiency,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 2067–2079, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  104. F. Prodam, M. Caputo, S. Belcastro et al., “Quality of life, mood disturbances and psychological parameters in adult patients with GH deficiency,” Panminerva Medica, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 323–331, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. D. F. Kelly, D. L. McArthur, H. Levin et al., “Neurobehavioral and quality of life changes associated with growth hormone insufficiency after complicated mild, moderate, or severe traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 928–942, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. P. Reimunde, A. Quintana, B. Castañón et al., “Effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement and cognitive rehabilitation in patients with cognitive disorders after traumatic brain injury,” Brain Injury, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 65–73, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. J. Hatton, R. P. Rapp, K. A. Kudsk et al., “Intravenous insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in moderate-to-severe head injury: a phase II safety and efficacy trial,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 779–786, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. J. Hatton, R. Kryscio, M. Ryan, O. Linda, and B. Young, “Systemic metabolic effects of combined insulin-like growth factor-I and growth hormone therapy in patients who have sustained acute traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 843–852, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. J. L. Cook, V. Marcheselli, J. Alam, P. L. Deininger, and N. G. Bazan, “Temporal changes in gene expression following cryogenic rat brain injury,” Molecular Brain Research, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 9–19, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus