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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 738528, 6 pages
Research Article

The Evolving Genotypic Profile of HIV-1 Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Treatment in the North Region of Brazil

1Medical Sciences Post-Graduate Program, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-903 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
2Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-901 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
3Programa de Genética, Instituto Nacional de Câncer, 21941-901 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
4Infectious Diseases Service, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-903 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Received 2 June 2015; Revised 5 September 2015; Accepted 20 September 2015

Academic Editor: Pere Domingo

Copyright © 2015 Carmen Andréa F. Lopes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


HIV related mutations can be associated with decreased susceptibility to antiretrovirals and treatment failures. There is scarce information about HIV mutations in persons failing HIV treatment in North of Brazil. Our aim was to evaluate evolution of HIV subtypes and mutations patterns related to antiretroviral therapy in this region. We investigated HIV resistance profile in adults failing antiretroviral regimen in Northern Brazil from January, 2004, through December, 2013. Genotype data was evaluated through Stanford University algorithm. There were 377 genotypes from different individuals to evaluate. Resistance mutations were similar to worldwide reports and related to antiretroviral exposure. Most prevalent mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene were M184V (80.1%) and K130N (40.6%). Thymidine associated mutations were more frequent in multiexperienced patients. Most common protease mutations were M46I, V82A, I54V, L90M, I84V, M46L, and L76V. Subtype B was the most prevalent (90.7%). There were differences between subtypes B and non-B mutations. We documented for the first time subtypes and patterns of HIV associated mutations in Northern Brazil. A1 subtype was identified for the first time in this area. Depending on drug regimen and how experienced the patient is, an empirical switch of a failing antiretroviral treatment could be a reasonable option.