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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 786519, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/786519
Review Article

Ophthalmic Alterations in the Sturge-Weber Syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome, and the Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis: An Independent Group of Conditions?

1Ophthalmology Unit, DAI Head/Neck, Umberto I Policlinic, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy
2Ophthalmology Unit, Department of Sense Organs, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy
3Section of Ophthalmology, Policlinico Militare di Roma, Piazza Celimontana 50, 00184 Roma, Italy
4Ophthalmology Unit, St. Andrea Hospital, NESMOS Department, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Via di Grottarossa 1035-1039, 00189 Rome, Italy

Received 18 March 2015; Accepted 27 April 2015

Academic Editor: Siavash Rahimi

Copyright © 2015 Solmaz Abdolrahimzadeh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The phakomatoses have been traditionally defined as a group of hereditary diseases with variable expressivity characterized by multisystem tumors with possible malignant transformation. The Sturge-Weber syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and the phakomatosis pigmentovascularis have the facial port-wine stain in common. Numerous pathophysiogenetic mechanisms have been suggested such as venous dysplasia of the emissary veins in the intracranial circulation, neural crest alterations leading to alterations of autonomic perivascular nerves, mutation of the GNAO gene in the Sturge-Weber syndrome, PIK3CA mutation in malformative/overgrowth syndromes such as the Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and the twin-spotting phenomenon in phakomatosis pigmentovascularis. Other features linked to the port-wine stain and typical to all of the three conditions are glaucoma and choroidal alterations. Glaucoma can be due to malformations of the anterior chamber or high episcleral venous pressure and in phakomatosis pigmentovascularis it can also be associated with angle hyperpigmentation. The choroid can be thickened in all diseases. Furthermore, choroidal melanocytosis in the phakomatosis pigmentovascularis can lead to malignant transformation. Although the multiple pathophysiological mechanisms still require clarification, similarities in ophthalmic manifestations make it reasonable to classify these diseases in an independent group.