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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 794718, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/794718
Research Article

Transcriptome Analysis of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867) (Acari: Tetranychidae), and Its Response to β-Sitosterol

1College of Biological Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing 102206, China
2Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (North), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 102206, China
3Plant Science and Technology College, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing 102206, China

Received 5 January 2015; Accepted 12 February 2015

Academic Editor: Marina Soković

Copyright © 2015 Chunya Bu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a worldwide polyphagous agricultural pest that has the title of resistance champion among arthropods. We reported previously the identification of the acaricidal compound β-sitosterol from Mentha piperita and Inula japonica. However, the acaricidal mechanism of β-sitosterol is unclear. Due to the limited genetic research carried out, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of T. cinnabarinus using Illumina sequencing and conducted a differential expression analysis of control and β-sitosterol-treated mites. In total, we obtained >5.4 G high-quality bases for each sample with unprecedented sequencing depth and assembled them into 22,941 unigenes. We identified 617 xenobiotic metabolism-related genes involved in detoxification, binding, and transporting of xenobiotics. A highly expanded xenobiotic metabolic system was found in mites. T. cinnabarinus detoxification genes—including carboxyl/cholinesterase and ABC transporter class C—were upregulated after β-sitosterol treatment. Defense-related proteins, such as Toll-like receptor, legumain, and serine proteases, were also activated. Furthermore, other important genes—such as the chloride channel protein, cytochrome b, carboxypeptidase, peritrophic membrane chitin binding protein, and calphostin—may also play important roles in mites’ response to β-sitosterol. Our results demonstrate that high-throughput-omics tool facilitates identification of xenobiotic metabolism-related genes and illustration of the acaricidal mechanisms of β-sitosterol.