Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 839403, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/839403
Research Article

Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions

1First Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of the Aegean, Myrina, Lemnos, Greece
3Department of Radiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece

Received 1 June 2015; Accepted 11 August 2015

Academic Editor: Monica Cantile

Copyright © 2015 Eleftheria Lakiotaki et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. A. Izzo and K. A. Sharkey, “Cannabinoids and the gut: new developments and emerging concepts,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 21–38, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Derkinderen, C. Ledent, M. Parmentier, and J.-A. Girault, “Cannabinoids activate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases through CB1 receptors in hippocampus,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 957–960, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. X. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Huang et al., “Overexpression of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 correlates with improved prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma,” Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol. 171, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. W. Michalski, F. E. Oti, M. Erkan et al., “Cannabinoids in pancreatic cancer: correlation with survival and pain,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 742–750, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. C. Chung, P. Hammarsten, A. Josefsson et al., “A high cannabinoid CB1 receptor immunoreactivity is associated with disease severity and outcome in prostate cancer,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 174–182, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. J. W. Klein Nulent, P. J. Van Diest, P. van der Groep et al., “Cannabinoid receptor-2 immunoreactivity is associated with survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 604–609, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. K. Miller and L. A. Devi, “The highs and lows of cannabinoid receptor expression in disease: mechanisms and their therapeutic implications,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 461–470, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. G. Pertwee, A. C. Howlett, M. E. Abood et al., “International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIX. Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands: beyond CB1 and CB2,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 588–631, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. Molina-Holgado, J. M. Vela, A. Arévalo-Martín et al., “Cannabinoids promote oligodendrocyte progenitor survival: involvement of cannabinoid receptors and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt signaling,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 22, pp. 9742–9753, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. De Petrocellis and V. Di Marzo, “An introduction to the endocannabinoid system: from the early to the latest concepts,” Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. V. Di Marzo and L. De Petrocellis, “Why do cannabinoid receptors have more than one endogenous ligand?” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 367, no. 1607, pp. 3216–3228, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Pisanti, P. Picardi, A. D'Alessandro, C. Laezza, and M. Bifulco, “The endocannabinoid signaling system in cancer,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 273–282, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. Van Dross, E. Soliman, S. Jha, T. Johnson, and S. Mukhopadhyay, “Receptor-dependent and receptor-independent endocannabinoid signaling: a therapeutic target for regulation of cancer growth,” Life Sciences, vol. 92, no. 8-9, pp. 463–466, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. M. Ward, A. Jemal, and A. Chen, “Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer: is diagnostic scrutiny the sole explanation?” Future Oncology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 185–188, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Gharib and E. Papini, “Thyroid nodules: clinical importance, assessment, and treatment,” Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 707–735, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Rosai, “Appendix C. staging of cancer,” in Rosai and Ackerman's Surgical Pathology, M. Houston, Ed., pp. 2809–2810, Mosby, London, UK, 9th edition, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  17. R. M. Tuttle, H. Tala, J. Shah et al., “Estimating risk of recurrence in differentiated thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine remnant ablation: using response to therapy variables to modify the initial risk estimates predicted by the new American thyroid association staging system,” Thyroid, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1341–1349, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. Giaginis, P. Alexandrou, I. Delladetsima, I. Giannopoulou, E. Patsouris, and S. Theocharis, “Clinical significance of histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1, HDAC-2, HDAC-4, and HDAC-6 expression in human malignant and benign thyroid lesions,” Tumor Biology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 61–71, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. Giaginis, C. Michailidi, V. Stolakis et al., “Expression of DNA repair proteins MSH2, MLH1 and MGMT in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions: an immunohistochemical study,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. BR81–BR90, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. Michailidi, C. Giaginis, V. Stolakis et al., “Evaluation of FAK and src expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions,” Pathology and Oncology Research, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 497–507, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. K. Jung, W. K. Kang, J. M. Park et al., “Expression of the cannabinoid type I receptor and prognosis following surgery in colorectal cancer,” Oncology Letters, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 870–876, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. Aviello, B. Romano, F. Borrelli et al., “Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer,” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 90, no. 8, pp. 925–934, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. Romano, F. Borrelli, E. Pagano, M. G. Cascio, R. G. Pertwee, and A. A. Izzo, “Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol,” Phytomedicine, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 631–639, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Carracedo, M. Gironella, M. Lorente et al., “Cannabinoids induce apoptosis of pancreatic tumor cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes,” Cancer Research, vol. 66, no. 13, pp. 6748–6755, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Preet, Z. Qamri, M. W. Nasser et al., “Cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, as novel targets for inhibition of non–small cell lung cancer growth and metastasis,” Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 65–75, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Grimaldi, S. Pisanti, C. Laezza et al., “Anandamide inhibits adhesion and migration of breast cancer cells,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 312, no. 4, pp. 363–373, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. Huang, J. C. Ramirez, G. A. Frampton et al., “Anandamide exerts its antiproliferative actions on cholangiocarcinoma by activation of the GPR55 receptor,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 1007–1017, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. O. Pellerito, G. Calvaruso, P. Portanova et al., “The synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis by activating p8/CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)/death receptor 5 (DR5) axis,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 854–863, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. S. B. Gustafsson, T. Lindgren, M. Jonsson, and S. O. P. Jacobsson, “Cannabinoid receptor-independent cytotoxic effects of cannabinoids in human colorectal carcinoma cells: synergism with 5-fluorouracil,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 691–701, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Y. Shi, M. Zou, E. Y. Baitei et al., “Cannabinoid 2 receptor induction by IL-12 and its potential as a therapeutic target for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma,” Cancer Gene Therapy, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 101–107, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. Cozzolino, G. Calì, M. Bifulco, and P. Laccetti, “A metabolically stable analogue of anandamide, Met-F-AEA, inhibits human thyroid carcinoma cell lines by activation of apoptosis,” Investigational New Drugs, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 115–123, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. Herrera, A. Carracedo, M. Diez-Zaera, T. Gómez del Pulgar, M. Guzmán, and G. Velasco, “The CB2 cannabinoid receptor signals apoptosis via ceramide-dependent activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 312, no. 11, pp. 2121–2131, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus