Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 841817, 22 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/841817
Review Article

Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Melanoma Antitumoral Therapy: A Review

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Drug and Medicines, São Paulo State University, 14801-902 Araraquara, SP, Brazil

Received 9 January 2015; Revised 6 April 2015; Accepted 7 April 2015

Academic Editor: Fabio Sonvico

Copyright © 2015 Roberta Balansin Rigon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. J. Cohen, E. Cox, K. Manton, and M. Woodbury, “Malignant melanoma in the elderly,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 100–106, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. E. LeBoit, Pathology & Genetics: Skin Tumours, edited by: World Health Organization, IARC Press, Lyon, France, 2006.
  3. R. N. Saladi and A. N. Persaud, “The causes of skin cancer: a comprehensive review,” Drugs of Today, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 37–53, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. de Vries, F. I. Bray, J. W. W. Coebergh, and D. M. Parkin, “Changing epidemiology of malignant cutaneous melanoma in Europe 1953–1997: rising trends in incidence and mortality but recent stabilizations in western Europe and decreases in Scandinavia,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 119–126, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Ferlay, H.-R. Shin, F. Bray, D. Forman, C. Mathers, and D. M. Parkin, “Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 127, no. 12, pp. 2893–2917, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, “Global cancer statistics,” CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 69–90, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Colombari, F. Bonetti, G. Zamboni et al., “Distribution of melanoma specific antibody (HMB-45) in benign and malignant melanocytic tumours. An immunohistochemical study on paraffin sections,” Virchows Archiv A, vol. 413, no. 1, pp. 17–24, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. Blessing, D. S. A. Sanders, and J. J. H. Grant, “Comparison of immunohistochemical staining of the novel antibody melan-A with S100 protein and HMB-45 in malignant melanoma and melanoma variants,” Histopathology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 139–146, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Gambichler, P. Regeniter, F. G. Bechara et al., “Characterization of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions using optical coherence tomography in vivo,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 629–637, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Harson and C. Grose, “Egress of varicella-zoster virus from the melanoma cell: a tropism for the melanocyte,” Journal of Virology, vol. 69, no. 8, pp. 4994–5010, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Ingraffea, “Melanoma,” Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 33–42, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Y. Lin and D. E. Fisher, “Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation,” Nature, vol. 445, no. 7130, pp. 843–850, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. Yamaguchi and V. J. Hearing, “Physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation,” BioFactors, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 193–199, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. L. Winsey, N. A. Haldar, H. P. Marsh et al., “A variant within the DNA repair gene XRCC3 is associated with the development of melanoma skin cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 60, no. 20, pp. 5612–5616, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. B. McKenna, V. R. Doherty, K. M. Mclaren, and J. A. A. Hunter, “Malignant melanoma and lymphoproliferative malignancy: is there a shared aetiology?” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 171–173, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. V. Bataille, “Genetic epidemiology of melanoma,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1341–1347, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. S. Brose, P. Volpe, M. Feldman et al., “BRAF and RAS mutations in human lung cancer and melanoma,” Cancer Research, vol. 62, no. 23, pp. 6997–7000, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Omholt, S. Karsberg, A. Platz, L. Kanter, U. Ringborg, and J. Hansson, “Screening of N-ras codon 61 mutations in paired primary and metastatic cutaneous melanomas: mutations occur early and persist throughout tumor progression,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 3468–3474, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. A. Tucker and A. M. Goldstein, “Melanoma etiology: where are we?” Oncogene, vol. 22, no. 20, pp. 3042–3052, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M.-F. Demierre and V. K. Sondak, “Cutaneous melanoma: pathogenesis and rationale for chemoprevention,” Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 225–239, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Colston, M. J. Colston, and D. Feldman, “1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and malignant melanoma: the presence of receptors and inhibition of cell growth in culture,” Endocrinology, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 1083–1086, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. E. Godar, R. J. Landry, and A. D. Lucas, “Increased UVA exposures and decreased cutaneous Vitamin D3 levels may be responsible for the increasing incidence of melanoma,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 434–443, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. V. Madhunapantula and G. P. Robertson, “Chemoprevention of Melanoma,” Advances in Pharmacology, vol. 65, pp. 361–398, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. C. Whiteman, P. Watt, D. M. Purdie, M. C. Hughes, N. K. Hayward, and A. C. Green, “Melanocytic nevi, solar keratoses, and divergent pathways to cutaneous melanoma,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 95, no. 11, pp. 806–812, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Megahed, M. Schön, D. Selimovic, and M. P. Schön, “Reliability of diagnosis of melanoma in situ,” The Lancet, vol. 359, no. 9321, pp. 1921–1922, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Massi and P. E. Leboit, “Melanoma in situ,” in Histological Diagnosis of Nevi and Melanoma, pp. 403–412, Springer, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  27. W. H. Clark Jr. and M. C. Mihm Jr., “Lentigo maligna and lentigo-maligna melanoma,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 39–67, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. V. Cardile, G. Malaponte, C. Loreto et al., “Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) and phospho-RKIP expression in melanomas,” Acta Histochemica, vol. 115, no. 8, pp. 795–802, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. T. Prehn, “The paradoxical association of regression with a poor prognosis in melanoma contrasted with a good prognosis in keratoacanthoma,” Cancer Research, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 937–940, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. M. Swetter, P. M. Ecker, D. L. Johnson, and J. D. Harvell, “Primary dermal melanoma: a distinct subtype of melanoma,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 99–103, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Hoek, D. L. Rimm, K. R. Williams et al., “Expression profiling reveals novel pathways in the transformation of melanocytes to melanomas,” Cancer Research, vol. 64, no. 15, pp. 5270–5282, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. Grossman and D. C. Altieri, “Drug resistance in melanoma: mechanisms, apoptosis, and new potential therapeutic targets,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 20, no. 1-2, pp. 3–11, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Karin and A. Lin, “NF-κB at the crossroads of life and death,” Nature Immunology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 221–227, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. A. Fecher, S. D. Cummings, M. J. Keefe, and R. M. Alani, “Toward a molecular classification of melanoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1606–1620, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. M. Cohen, “Lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 923–939, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Menzies, “Superficial spreading melanoma,” in An Atlas of Dermoscopy, J. M. Ashfaq, A. Marghoob, and R. Marghoob, Eds., pp. 203–209, CRC Press, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  37. A. E. Chang, L. H. Karnell, and H. R. Menck, “The national cancer data base report on cutaneous and noncutaneous melanoma: a summary of 84,836 cases from the past decade,” Cancer, vol. 83, no. 8, pp. 1664–1678, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. E. T. Krementz, R. J. Reed, and W. P. Coleman III, “Acral lentiginous melanoma. A clinicopathologic entity,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 195, no. 5, pp. 632–645, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. A. Scolyer, G. V. Long, and J. F. Thompson, “Evolving concepts in melanoma classification and their relevance to multidisciplinary melanoma patient care,” Molecular Oncology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 124–136, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. N. J. Crowley and H. F. Seigler, “Late recurrence of malignant melanoma: analysis of 168 patients,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 212, no. 2, pp. 173–177, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M.-H. Schmid-Wendtner, J. Baumert, M. Schmidt et al., “Late metastases of cutaneous melanoma: an analysis of 31 patients,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 605–609, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. J. Sober and J. M. Burstein, “Precursors to skin cancer,” Cancer, vol. 75, no. 2, supplement, pp. 645–650, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. K. Hoffmann, J. Jung, S. El Gammal, and P. Altmeyer, “Malignant melanoma in 20-MHz B scan sonography,” Dermatology, vol. 185, no. 1, pp. 49–55, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. S. Wang, T. M. Johnson, P. N. Cascade, B. G. Redman, V. K. Sondak, and J. L. Schwartz, “Evaluation of staging chest radiographs and serum lactate dehydrogenase for localized melanoma,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 399–405, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. M. Balch, A. C. Buzaid, S.-J. Soong et al., “Final version of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for cutaneous melanoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 19, no. 16, pp. 3635–3648, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. B. Revin and S. A. John, “Electrochemical marker for metastatic malignant melanoma based on the determination of l-dopa/l-tyrosine ratio,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 188, pp. 1026–1032, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. S. Tyler, M. Onaitis, A. Kherani et al., “Positron emission tomography scanning in malignant melanoma: clinical utility in patients with Stage III disease,” Cancer, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 1019–1025, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. D. A. Sipkins, D. A. Cheresh, M. R. Kazemi, L. M. Nevin, M. D. Bednarski, and K. C. P. Li, “Detection of tumor angiogenesis in vivo by αvβ3-targeted magnetic resonance imaging,” Nature Medicine, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 623–626, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. D. Rinne, R. P. Baum, G. Hör, and R. Kaufmann, “Primary staging and follow-up of high risk melanoma patients with whole-body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: results of a prospective study of 100 patients,” Cancer, vol. 82, no. 9, pp. 1664–1671, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  50. M. González Cao, J. M. Auge, R. Molina et al., “Melanoma inhibiting activity protein (MIA), beta-2 microglobulin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in metastatic melanoma,” Anticancer Research, vol. 27, no. 1B, pp. 595–599, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. L. L. Yu, T. J. Flotte, K. K. Tanabe et al., “Detection of microscopic melanoma metastases in sentinel lymph nodes,” Cancer, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 617–627, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. B. Sporn, N. M. Dunlop, D. L. Newton, and J. M. Smith, “Prevention of chemical carcinogenesis by vitamin A and its synthetic analogs (retinoids),” Federation Proceedings, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1332–1338, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. F. L. Meyskens Jr., P. J. Farmer, and H. Anton-Culver, “Etiologic pathogenesis of melanoma: a unifying hypothesis for the missing attributable risk,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 2581–2583, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. V. Anstey, “Systemic photoprotection with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and β-carotene,” Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 170–176, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. W. Stahl and H. Sies, “Carotenoids and protection against solar UV radiation,” Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 291–296, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H. Tsao, M. Feldman, J. E. Fullerton, A. J. Sober, D. Rosenthal, and W. Goggins, “Early detection of asymptomatic pulmonary melanoma metastases by routine chest radiographs is not associated with improved survival,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 67–70, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. Erdei and S. M. Torres, “A new understanding in the epidemiology of melanoma,” Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1811–1823, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. D. Kavanagh, A. D. K. Hill, B. Djikstra, R. Kennelly, E. M. W. McDermott, and N. J. O'Higgins, “Adjuvant therapies in the treatment of stage II and III malignant melanoma,” Surgeon, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 245–256, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. Schreiber, E. Kämpgen, E. Wagner et al., “Immunotherapy of metastatic malignant melanoma by a vaccine consisting of autologous interleukin 2-transfected cancer cells: outcome of a phase I study,” Human Gene Therapy, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 983–993, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. W. Dubois, S. M. Swetter, M. Atkins et al., “Developing indications for the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy and adjuvant high-dose interferon alfa-2b in melanoma,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 137, no. 9, pp. 1217–1224, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. H. Tsao, M. B. Atkins, and A. J. Sober, “Management of cutaneous melanoma,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 10, pp. 998–1012, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. Hu, Y. Parmet, G. Allen et al., “Disparity in melanoma: a trend analysis of melanoma incidence and stage at diagnosis among whites, Hispanics, and blacks in Florida,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 145, no. 12, pp. 1369–1374, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. V. K. Sondak and G. T. Gibney, “Indications and options for systemic therapy in melanoma,” Surgical Clinics of North America, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 1049–1058, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. S. Stadler, K. Weina, C. Gebhardt, and J. Utikal, “New therapeutic options for advanced non-resectable malignant melanoma,” Advances in Medical Sciences, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 83–88, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. A. Ribas, A. Hauschild, R. Kefford et al., “Phase III, open-label, randomized, comparative study of tremelimumab (CP-675,206) and chemotherapy (temozolomide [TMZ] or dacarbazine [DTIC]) in patients with advanced melanoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 15, supplement, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  66. M. A. Postow, J. Chesney, A. C. Pavlick et al., “Nivolumab and ipilimumab versus ipilimumab in untreated melanoma,” The New England Journal of Medicine, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. S. Bagcchi, “Pembrolizumab for treatment of refractory melanoma,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 15, no. 10, article e419, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. T. K. Burki, “Variation in prostate cancer management,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 15, no. 10, p. e419, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. B. V. Bonifácio, P. B. da Silva, M. Aparecido dos Santos Ramos, K. Maria Silveira Negri, T. Maria Bauab, and M. Chorilli, “Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines: a review,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. R. M. Mainardes, M. C. Cocenza Urban, P. O. Cinto, M. V. Chaud, R. C. Evangelista, and M. P. Daflon Gremião, “Liposomes and micro/nanoparticles as colloidal carriers for nasal drug delivery,” Current Drug Delivery, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 275–285, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. R. N. Saha, S. Vasanthakumar, G. Bende, and M. Snehalatha, “Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems for cancer chemotherapy,” Molecular Membrane Biology, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 215–231, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. E. Grill, N. W. Johnston, T. Sadhukha, and J. Panyam, “A review of select recent patents on novel nanocarriers,” Recent Patents on Drug Delivery and Formulation, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 137–142, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. Venugopal, M. P. Prabhakaran, S. Low et al., “Continuous nanostructures for the controlled release of drugs,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 15, no. 15, pp. 1799–1808, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. V. P. Torchilin, “Multifunctional, stimuli-sensitive nanoparticulate systems for drug delivery,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 813–827, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. A. Kumar, A. Srivastava, I. Y. Galaev, and B. Mattiasson, “Smart polymers: physical forms and bioengineering applications,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1205–1237, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. P. Patel, S. T. Churchman, A. T. Cruchley, M. Braden, and D. M. Williams, “Delivery of macromolecules across oral mucosa from polymeric hydrogels is enhanced by electrophoresis (iontophoresis),” Dental Materials, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. e299–e307, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. S. Thomas, R. Shanks, and C. Sarathchandran, Nanostructured Polymer Blends, edited by: W. Andrew, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 1st edition, 2013.
  78. T. R. Hoare and D. S. Kohane, “Hydrogels in drug delivery: progress and challenges,” Polymer, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 1993–2007, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Casolaro, D. B. Barbara, and M. Emilia, “Hydrogel containing l-valine residues as a platform for cisplatin chemotherapy,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 389–395, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. L. Drury and D. J. Mooney, “Hydrogels for tissue engineering: scaffold design variables and applications,” Biomaterials, vol. 24, no. 24, pp. 4337–4351, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. S. W. Kim, Y. H. Bae, and T. Okano, “Hydrogels: swelling, drug loading, and release,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 283–290, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. R. Vasita and D. S. Katti, “Nanofibers and their applications in tissue engineering,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 15–30, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. N. A. Peppas, P. Bures, W. Leobandung, and H. Ichikawa, “Hydrogels in pharmaceutical formulations,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 27–46, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. D. J. Murphy, M. G. Sankalia, R. G. Loughlin, R. F. Donnelly, M. G. Jenkins, and P. A. Mccarron, “Physical characterisation and component release of poly(vinyl alcohol)-tetrahydroxyborate hydrogels and their applicability as potential topical drug delivery systems,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 423, no. 2, pp. 326–334, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. N. Bhattarai, J. Gunn, and M. Zhang, “Chitosan-based hydrogels for controlled, localized drug delivery,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 83–99, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. Y. Gao, J. Xie, H. Chen et al., “Nanotechnology-based intelligent drug design for cancer metastasis treatment,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 761–777, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. J. Alvarez-Figueroa and J. Blanco-Méndez, “Transdermal delivery of methotrexate: iontophoretic delivery from hydrogels and passive delivery from microemulsions,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 215, no. 1-2, pp. 57–65, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. G. Lu and H. W. Jun, “Diffusion studies of methotrexate in Carbopol and Poloxamer gels,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. F. C. Carvalho, G. Calixto, I. N. Hatakeyama, G. M. Luz, M. P. D. Gremião, and M. Chorilli, “Rheological, mechanical, and bioadhesive behavior of hydrogels to optimize skin delivery systems,” Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 1750–1757, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. G. Calixto, A. C. Yoshii, H. Rocha e Silva, B. S. F. Cury, and M. Chorilli, “Polyacrylic acid polymers hydrogels intended to topical drug delivery: preparation and characterization,” Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  91. M. Redpath, C. M. G. Marques, C. Dibden, A. Waddon, R. Lalla, and S. MacNeil, “Ibuprofen and hydrogel-released ibuprofen in the reduction of inflammation-induced migration in melanoma cells,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 25–33, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. M. J. Moura, M. H. Gil, and M. M. Figueiredo, “Delivery of cisplatin from thermosensitive co-cross-linked chitosan hydrogels,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 2504–2510, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. M. R. Bernsen, J.-W. Tang, L. A. Everse, J. W. Koten, and W. Den Otter, “Interleukin 2 (IL-2) therapy: potential advantages of locoregional versus systemic administration,” Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 73–82, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. G. W. Bos, J. J. L. Jacobs, J. W. Koten et al., “In situ crosslinked biodegradable hydrogels loaded with IL-2 are effective tools for local IL-2 therapy,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 561–567, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. T. Takei, K. Sugihara, M. Yoshida, and K. Kawakami, “Injectable and biodegradable sugar beet pectin/gelatin hydrogels for biomedical applications,” Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1333–1342, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. E. Ruel-Gariépy, M. Shive, A. Bichara et al., “A thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogel for the local delivery of paclitaxel,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 53–63, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. W. S. Shim, J.-H. Kim, K. Kim et al., “pH- and temperature-sensitive, injectable, biodegradable block copolymer hydrogels as carriers for paclitaxel,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 331, no. 1, pp. 11–18, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. C. C. Beh, R. Mammucari, and N. R. Foster, “Lipids-based drug carrier systems by dense gas technology: a review,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 188, pp. 1–14, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. E. Fahy, S. Subramaniam, H. A. Brown et al., “A comprehensive classification system for lipids,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 839–861, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. D.-G. Yu, C. Branford-White, G. R. Williams et al., “Self-assembled liposomes from amphiphilic electrospun nanofibers,” Soft Matter, vol. 7, no. 18, pp. 8239–8247, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. S. Zhang, H.-J. Sun, A. D. Hughes et al., “‘single-single’ amphiphilic janus dendrimers self-assemble into uniform dendrimersomes with predictable size,” ACS Nano, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1554–1565, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. J. Muñoz and M. C. Alfaro, “Rheological and phase behaviour of amphiphilic lipids,” Grasas y Aceites, vol. 51, no. 1-2, pp. 6–25, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. M. Y. Vagin, E. V. Malyh, N. I. Larionova, and A. A. Karyakin, “Spontaneous and facilitated micelles formation at liquid/liquid interface: towards amperometric detection of redox inactive proteins,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 329–333, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. M. C. Woodle and D. Papahadjopoulos, “Liposome preparation and size characterization,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 171, pp. 193–217, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. W. R. Hargreaves, “Liposomes from ionic, single-chain amphiphiles,” Biochemistry, vol. 17, no. 18, pp. 3759–3767, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. F. Frézard, D. A. Schettini, O. G. Rocha, and C. Demicheli, “Lipossomas: propriedades físico-químicas e farmacológicas, aplicações na quimioterapia à base de antimônio,” Química Nova, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 511–518, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  107. V. P. Torchilin, “Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 145–160, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. L. C. G. Machado, S. Anne, and M. L. W. Klüppel, “Liposomes applied in pharmacology: a review,” Estudos de Biologia, vol. 29, no. 67, pp. 215–224, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  109. A. N. Jǎtariu, M. Popa, and C. A. Peptu, “Different particulate systems—bypass the biological barriers,” Journal of Drug Targeting, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 243–253, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. N. Berger, A. Sachse, J. Bender, R. Schubert, and M. Brandl, “Filter extrusion of liposomes using different devices: comparison of liposome size, encapsulation efficiency, and process characteristics,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 223, no. 1-2, pp. 55–68, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. M. M. Lapinski, A. Castro-Forero, A. J. Greiner, R. Y. Ofoli, and G. J. Blanchard, “Comparison of liposomes formed by sonication and extrusion: rotational and translational diffusion of an embedded chromophore,” Langmuir, vol. 23, no. 23, pp. 11677–11683, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. F. Olson, C. A. Hunt, F. C. Szoka, W. J. Vail, and D. Papahadjopoulos, “Preparation of liposomes of defined size distribution by extrusion through polycarbonate membranes,” BBA—Biomembranes, vol. 557, no. 1, pp. 9–23, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. E. Feitosa, P. C. A. Barreleiro, and G. Olofsson, “Phase transition in dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide and chloride vesicles prepared by different methods,” Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 201–213, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. D. G. Hunter and B. J. Frisken, “Effect of extrusion pressure and lipid properties on the size and polydispersity of lipid vesicles,” Biophysical Journal, vol. 74, no. 6, pp. 2996–3002, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. G. Maulucci, M. De Spirito, G. Arcovito, F. Boffi, A. C. Castellano, and G. Briganti, “Particle distribution in DMPC vesicles solutions undergoing different sonication times,” Biophysical Journal, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 3545–3550, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. M. Owais and C. M. Gupta, “Targeted drug delivery to macrophages in parasitic infections,” Current Drug Delivery, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 311–318, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. R. A. Schwendener, “Liposomes in biology and medicine,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 620, pp. 117–128, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. S. Bhowmick, R. Ravindran, and N. Ali, “Leishmanial antigens in liposomes promote protective immunity and provide immunotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis via polarized Th1 response,” Vaccine, vol. 25, no. 35, pp. 6544–6556, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. S. E. Treiger Borborema, R. A. Schwendener, J. A. Osso Junior, H. F. de Andrade Junior, and N. do Nascimento, “Uptake and antileishmanial activity of meglumine antimoniate-containing liposomes in Leishmania (Leishmania) major-infected macrophages,” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 341–347, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. P. Wolf, H. Maier, R. R. Müllegger et al., “Topical treatment with liposomes containing T4 endonuclease V protects human skin in vivo from ultraviolet-induced upregulation of interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 149–156, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. D. Yarosh, J. Klein, A. O'Connor, J. Hawk, E. Rafal, and P. Wolf, “Effect of topically applied T4 endonuclease V in liposomes on skin cancer in xeroderma pigmentosum: a randomised study,” The Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9260, pp. 926–929, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. M. B. Pierre, A. C. Tedesco, J. M. Marchetti, and M. V. Bentley, “Stratum corneum lipids liposomes for the topical delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid in photodynamic therapy of skin cancer: preparation and in vitro permeation study,” BMC Dermatology, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 5, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. Y. Chen, Q. Wu, Z. Zhang, L. Yuan, X. Liu, and L. Zhou, “Preparation of curcumin-loaded liposomes and evaluation of their skin permeation and pharmacodynamics,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 5972–5987, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. M. Nobayashi, M. Mizuno, T. Kageshita, K. Matsumoto, T. Saida, and J. Yoshida, “Repeated cationic multilamellar liposome-mediated gene transfer enhanced transduction efficiency against murine melanoma cell lines,” Journal of Dermatological Science, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 206–213, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. D. Liu, H. Hu, Z. Lin et al., “Quercetin deformable liposome: preparation and efficacy against ultraviolet B induced skin damages in vitro and in vivo,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol. 127, pp. 8–17, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. E. M. M. Del Valle, “Cyclodextrins and their uses: a review,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1033–1046, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. M. Singh, R. Sharma, and U. C. Banerjee, “Biotechnological applications of cyclodextrins,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 20, no. 5-6, pp. 341–359, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. A. L. Laza-Knoerr, R. Gref, and P. Couvreur, “Cyclodextrins for drug delivery,” Journal of Drug Targeting, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 645–656, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. A. Biwer, G. Antranikian, and E. Heinzle, “Enzymatic production of cyclodextrins,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 609–617, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. T. Loftsson and D. Duchêne, “Cyclodextrins and their pharmaceutical applications,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 329, no. 1-2, pp. 1–11, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. T. Loftsson and M. E. Brewster, “Pharmaceutical applications of cyclodextrins. 1. Drug solubilization and stabilization,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 1017–1025, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. T. Loftsson, M. Másson, and M. E. Brewster, “Self-association of cyclodextrins and cyclodextrin complexes,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 1091–1099, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. J. Zhang and P. X. Ma, “Host-guest interactions mediated nano-assemblies using cyclodextrin-containing hydrophilic polymers and their biomedical applications,” Nano Today, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 337–350, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. K. Uekama, “Design and evaluation of cyclodextrin-based drug formulation,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 900–915, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. B. Gidwani and A. Vyas, “Synthesis, characterization and application of epichlorohydrin-β-cyclodextrin polymer,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 114, pp. 130–137, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. N. C. Bellocq, S. H. Pun, G. S. Jensen, and M. E. Davis, “Transferrin-containing, cyclodextrin polymer-based particles for tumor-targeted gene delivery,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1122–1132, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. S. Hu-Lieskovan, J. D. Heidel, D. W. Bartlett, M. E. Davis, and T. J. Triche, “Sequence-specific knockdown of EWS-FLI1 by targeted, nonviral delivery of small interfering RNA inhibits tumor growth in a murine model of metastatic Ewing's sarcoma,” Cancer Research, vol. 65, no. 19, pp. 8984–8992, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. S. H. Pun, F. Tack, N. C. Bellocq et al., “Targeted delivery of RNA-cleaving DNA enzyme (DNAzyme) to tumor tissue by transferrin-modified, cyclodextrin-based particles,” Cancer Biology and Therapy, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 641–650, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. D. Michel, J. M. Chitanda, R. Balogh et al., “Design and evaluation of cyclodextrin-based delivery systems to incorporate poorly soluble curcumin analogs for the treatment of melanoma,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 548–556, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. S. Ganta, H. Devalapally, A. Shahiwala, and M. Amiji, “A review of stimuli-responsive nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 187–204, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. I. F. Tannock and D. Rotin, “Acid pH in tumors and its potential for therapeutic exploitation,” Cancer Research, vol. 49, no. 16, pp. 4373–4384, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. Y. Liu, W. Wang, J. Yang, C. Zhou, and J. Sun, “pH-sensitive polymeric micelles triggered drug release for extracellular and intracellular drug targeting delivery,” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 159–167, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  143. Z. Zhang, J. Ding, X. Chen et al., “Intracellular pH-sensitive supramolecular amphiphiles based on host-guest recognition between benzimidazole and β-cyclodextrin as potential drug delivery vehicles,” Polymer Chemistry, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 3265–3271, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. H. He, S. Chen, J. Zhou et al., “Cyclodextrin-derived pH-responsive nanoparticles for delivery of paclitaxel,” Biomaterials, vol. 34, no. 21, pp. 5344–5358, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. F. Huang and H. W. Gibson, “Polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 982–1018, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. J. Chang, Y. Li, G. Wang, B. He, and Z. Gu, “Fabrication of novel coumarin derivative functionalized polypseudorotaxane micelles for drug delivery,” Nanoscale, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 813–820, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. Z.-H. Chen and E. Niki, “4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) has been widely accepted as an inducer of oxidative stress. Is this the whole truth about it or can 4-HNE also exert protective effects?” IUBMB Life, vol. 58, no. 5-6, pp. 372–373, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. W. Siems and T. Grune, “Intracellular metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal,” Molecular Aspects of Medicine, vol. 24, no. 4-5, pp. 167–175, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. S. Pizzimenti, E. Ciamporcero, P. Pettazzoni et al., “The inclusion complex of 4-hydroxynonenal with a polymeric derivative of β-cyclodextrin enhances the antitumoral efficacy of the aldehyde in several tumor cell lines and in a three-dimensional human melanoma model,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 65, pp. 765–777, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. S. K. Rodal, G. Skretting, Ø. Garred, F. Vilhardt, B. van Deurs, and K. Sandvig, “Extraction of cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin perturbs formation of clathrin-coated endocytic vesicles,” Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 961–974, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. I. S. Babina, S. Donatello, I. R. Nabi, and A. M. Hopkins, “Lipid rafts as master regulators of breast cancer cell function,” in Breast Cancer—Carcinogenesis, Cell Growth and Signalling Pathways, M. Gunduz and E. Gunduz, Eds., chapter 19, InTech, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  152. T. Murai, Y. Maruyama, K. Mio, H. Nishiyama, M. Suga, and C. Sato, “Low cholesterol triggers membrane microdomain-dependent CD44 shedding and suppresses tumor cell migration,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 286, no. 3, pp. 1999–2007, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. P. Keller and K. Simons, “Cholesterol is required for surface transport of influenza virus hemagglutinin,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 1357–1367, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. R. Onodera, K. Motoyama, A. Okamatsu et al., “Involvement of cholesterol depletion from lipid rafts in apoptosis induced by methyl-β-cyclodextrin,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 452, no. 1-2, pp. 116–123, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. A. Mazzaglia, M. L. Bondì, A. Scala et al., “Supramolecular assemblies based on complexes of nonionic amphiphilic cyclodextrins and a meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine tributyltin(IV) derivative: potential nanotherapeutics against melanoma,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 3820–3829, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. G. S. Kienle and H. Kiene, “Complementary cancer therapy: a systematic review of prospective clinical trials on anthroposophic mistletoe extracts,” European Journal of Medical Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 103–119, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. E. Ernst, “The role of complementary and alternative medicine in cancer,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 176–180, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. C. M. Strüh, S. Jäger, A. Kersten, C. M. Schempp, A. Scheffler, and S. F. Martin, “Triterpenoids amplify anti-tumoral effects of mistletoe extracts on murine B16.f10 melanoma in vivo,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 4, Article ID e62168, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. R. H. Cichewicz and S. A. Kouzi, “Chemistry, biological activity, and chemotherapeutic potential of betulinic acid for the prevention and treatment of cancer and HIV infection,” Medicinal Research Reviews, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 90–114, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. C. Şoica, C. Dehelean, C. Danciu et al., “Betulin complex in γ-cyclodextrin derivatives: properties and antineoplasic activities in in vitro and in vivo tumor models,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 14992–15011, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. C. Nicholas and G. B. Lesinski, “Immunomodulatory cytokines as therapeutic agents for melanoma,” Immunotherapy, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 673–690, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. R. A. Flavell, S. Sanjabi, S. H. Wrzesinski, and P. Licona-Limón, “The polarization of immune cells in the tumour environment by TGFβ,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 554–567, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. J. Park, S. H. Wrzesinski, E. Stern et al., “Combination delivery of TGF-β inhibitor and IL-2 by nanoscale liposomal polymeric gels enhances tumour immunotherapy,” Nature Materials, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 895–905, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 497–508, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. H. Kolarova, J. Macecek, P. Nevrelova et al., “Photodynamic therapy with zinc-tetra(p-sulfophenyl)porphyrin bound to cyclodextrin induces single strand breaks of cellular DNA in G361 melanoma cells,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 971–974, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. S. S. Guterres, M. P. Alves, and A. R. Pohlmann, “Polymeric nanoparticles, nanospheres and nanocapsules, for cutaneous applications,” Drug Target Insights, vol. 2, pp. 147–157, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  167. V. Mohanraj and Y. Chen, “Nanoparticles—a review,” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 561–573, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  168. H. Bhargava, A. Narurkar, and L. Lieb, “Using microemulsions for drug delivery,” Pharmaceutical Technology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 46–54, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  169. T. P. Formariz, M. C. Urban, A. A. Silva Júnior, M. P. Gremião, and A. G. Oliveira, “Microemulsões e fases líquidas cristalinas como sistemas de liberação de fármacos,” Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêuticas, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 301–313, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  170. M. Chorilli, P. S. Prestes, R. B. Rigon, G. R. Leonardi, L. A. Chiavacci, and M. V. Scarpa, “Desenvolvimento de sistemas líquido-cristalinos empregando silicone fluido de co-polímero glicol e poliéter funcional siloxano,” Química Nova, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 1036–1040, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  171. C. C. Mueller-Goymann and S. G. Frank, “Interaction of lidocaine and lidocaine-HCl with the liquid crystal structure of topical preparations,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 29, no. 2-3, pp. 147–159, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. O. Lehmann, Flüssige Kristalle, Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, Germany, 1904.
  173. M. Ferrari, “Obtenção e aplicação de emulsões múltiplas contendo óleo de andiroba e copaíba,” in Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, p. 147, Sao Paulo University, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  174. M. Urban, “Desenvolvimento de sistemas de liberação micro e nanoestruturados para administração cutânea do acetato de dexametasona,” in Drugs and Medicines, p. 136, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, Brazil, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  175. L. Bitan-Cherbakovsky, A. Aserin, and N. Garti, “Structural characterization of lyotropic liquid crystals containing a dendrimer for solubilization and release of gallic acid,” Colloids and Surfaces B, vol. 112, pp. 87–95, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. M. Gosenca, M. Bešter-Rogač, and M. Gašperlin, “Lecithin based lamellar liquid crystals as a physiologically acceptable dermal delivery system for ascorbyl palmitate,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 114–122, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. D. Bei, J. Marszalek, and B.-B. C. Youan, “Formulation of dacarbazine-loaded cubosomes—part I: influence of formulation variables,” AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1032–1039, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. D. Bei, T. Zhang, J. B. Murowchick, and B.-B. C. Youan, “Formulation of dacarbazine-loaded cubosomes. Part III. physicochemical characterization,” AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 1243–1249, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. X. Gong, M. J. Moghaddam, S. M. Sagnella et al., “Lyotropic liquid crystalline self-assembly material behavior and nanoparticulate dispersions of a phytanyl pro-drug analogue of capecitabine—a chemotherapy agent,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 1552–1561, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. K. L. von Eckardstein, S. Patt, C. Kratzel, J. C. W. Kiwit, and R. Reszka, “Local chemotherapy of F98 rat glioblastoma with paclitaxel and carboplatin embedded in liquid crystalline cubic phases,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 209–215, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. K. L. von Eckardstein, R. Reszka, and J. C. Kiwit, “Intracavitary chemotherapy (paclitaxel/carboplatin liquid crystalline cubic phases) for recurrent glioblastoma—clinical observations,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 305–309, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. S. B. Rizwan, Y.-D. Dong, B. J. Boyd, T. Rades, and S. Hook, “Characterisation of bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline systems of phytantriol and water using cryo field emission scanning electron microscopy (cryo FESEM),” Micron, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 478–485, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. N. Zeng, Q. Hu, Z. Liu et al., “Preparation and characterization of paclitaxel-loaded DSPE-PEG-liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) for improved bioavailability,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 424, no. 1-2, pp. 58–66, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. D. Bei, J. Marszalek, and B.-B. C. Youan, “Formulation of dacarbazine-loaded cubosomes—part II: influence of process parameters,” AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1040–1047, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. L. Mu and S. S. Feng, “A novel controlled release formulation for the anticancer drug paclitaxel (Taxol): PLGA nanoparticles containing vitamin E TPGS,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 33–48, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. A. Pampel, D. Michel, and R. Reszka, “Pulsed field gradient MAS-NMR studies of the mobility of carboplatin in cubic liquid-crystalline phases,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 357, no. 1-2, pp. 131–136, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. A. Dowling, R. Clift, N. Grobert et al., “Nanoscience and nanotechnologies: opportunities and uncertainties,” The Royal Society & The Royal Academy of Engineering Report, Royal Academy of Engineering, London, UK, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  188. P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 14, pp. 7238–7248, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. K. A. Howard, U. L. Rahbek, X. Liu et al., “RNA interference in vitro and in vivo using a novel chitosan/siRNA nanoparticle system,” Molecular Therapy, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 476–484, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. P. L. Apopa, Y. Qian, R. Shao et al., “Iron oxide nanoparticles induce human microvascular endothelial cell permeability through reactive oxygen species production and microtubule remodeling,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 6, no. 1, article 1, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. M. Auffan, J. Rose, J.-Y. Bottero, G. V. Lowry, J.-P. Jolivet, and M. R. Wiesner, “Towards a definition of inorganic nanoparticles from an environmental, health and safety perspective,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 634–641, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  192. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Guidance for Industry: Assessing the Effects of Significant Manufacturing Process Changes, Including Emerging Technologies, on the Safety and Regulatory Status of Food Ingredients and Food Contact Substances, Including Food Ingredients That are Color Additives, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Silver Spring, Md, USA, 2012.
  193. R. Müller and J. Lucks, “Arzneistoffträger aus festen lipidteilchen, feste lipidnanosphären (sln),” European Patent, 1996.
  194. R. H. Müller, R. D. Petersen, A. Hommoss, and J. Pardeike, “Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in cosmetic dermal products,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 522–530, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  195. W. Mehnert and K. Mäder, “Solid lipid nanoparticles: production, characterization and applications,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 47, no. 2-3, pp. 165–196, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  196. E. B. Souto, A. J. Almeida, and R. H. Müller, “Lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC) for cutaneous drug delivery: structure, protection and skin effects,” Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 317–331, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  197. Y.-C. Kuo and C.-C. Wang, “Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles with primary and quaternary amines for release of saquinavir and biocompatibility with endothelia,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 101, pp. 101–105, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. Y.-C. Kuo and C.-T. Liang, “Catanionic solid lipid nanoparticles carrying doxorubicin for inhibiting the growth of U87MG cells,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 131–137, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  199. F. Canfarotta, M. J. Whitcombe, and S. A. Piletsky, “Polymeric nanoparticles for optical sensing,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1585–1599, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  200. C.-M. J. Hu and L. Zhang, “Nanoparticle-based combination therapy toward overcoming drug resistance in cancer,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 83, no. 8, pp. 1104–1111, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  201. H. Fessi, F. Piusieux, J. P. Devissaguet, N. Ammoury, and S. Benita, “Nanocapsule formation by interfacial polymer deposition following solvent displacement,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. R1–R4, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. N. Al Khouri Fallouh, L. Roblot-Treupel, and H. Fessi, “Development of a new process for the manufacture of polyisobutylcyanoacrylate nanocapsules,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 28, no. 2-3, pp. 125–132, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. B. Magenheim and S. Benita, “Nanoparticle characterization: a comprehensive physicochemical approach,” STP Pharma Sciences, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 221–241, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  204. K. S. Soppimath, T. M. Aminabhavi, A. R. Kulkarni, and W. E. Rudzinski, “Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles as drug delivery devices,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 70, no. 1-2, pp. 1–20, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. G. Orive, E. Anitua, J. L. Pedraz, and D. F. Emerich, “Biomaterials for promoting brain protection, repair and regeneration,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 682–692, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  206. K. Letchford and H. Burt, “A review of the formation and classification of amphiphilic block copolymer nanoparticulate structures: micelles, nanospheres, nanocapsules and polymersomes,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 259–269, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  207. D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, “Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation,” Cell, vol. 144, no. 5, pp. 646–674, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. A. Jain, K. Jain, P. Kesharwani, and N. K. Jain, “Low density lipoproteins mediated nanoplatforms for cancer targeting,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 15, no. 9, article 1888, 38 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  209. H. Hillaireau and P. Couvreur, “Nanocarriers' entry into the cell: relevance to drug delivery,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 66, no. 17, pp. 2873–2896, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  210. J. H. Sakamoto, A. L. van de Ven, B. Godin et al., “Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 57–89, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  211. Y.-C. Kuo and H.-H. Chen, “Effect of electromagnetic field on endocytosis of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles by human brain-microvascular endothelial cells,” Journal of Drug Targeting, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 447–456, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  212. D. E. Owens III and N. A. Peppas, “Opsonization, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of polymeric nanoparticles,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 307, no. 1, pp. 93–102, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  213. A. Gabizon and F. Martin, “Polyethylene glycol-coated (pegylated) liposomal doxorubicin. Rationale for use in solid tumours,” Drugs, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 15–21, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  214. T. Ameller, V. Marsaud, P. Legrand, R. Gref, G. Barratt, and J.-M. Renoir, “Polyester-poly(ethylene glycol) nanoparticles loaded with the pure antiestrogen RU 58668: physicochemical and opsonization properties,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1063–1070, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  215. K. Na, E. S. Lee, and Y. H. Bae, “Adriamycin loaded pullulan acetate/sulfonamide conjugate nanoparticles responding to tumor pH: pH-dependent cell interaction, internalization and cytotoxicity in vitro,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 87, no. 1–3, pp. 3–13, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  216. F. Sonvico, S. Mornet, S. Vasseur et al., “Folate-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for solid tumor targeting as potential specific magnetic hyperthermia mediators: synthesis, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro experiments,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1181–1188, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  217. H. L. Wong, R. Bendayan, A. M. Rauth, H. Y. Xue, K. Babakhanian, and X. Y. Wu, “A mechanistic study of enhanced doxorubicin uptake and retention in multidrug resistant breast cancer cells using a polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticle system,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 317, no. 3, pp. 1372–1381, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  218. E. Ristorcelli, E. Beraud, P. Verrando et al., “Human tumor nanoparticles induce apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 3358–3369, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  219. R. A. Parlo and P. S. Coleman, “Enhanced rate of citrate export from cholesterol-rich hepatoma mitochondria. The truncated Krebs cycle and other metabolic ramifications of mitochondrial membrane cholesterol,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 259, no. 16, pp. 9997–10003, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  220. H. L. Wong, R. Bendayan, A. M. Rauth, Y. Li, and X. Y. Wu, “Chemotherapy with anticancer drugs encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 491–504, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  221. Y. Noguchi, J. Wu, R. Duncan et al., “Early phase tumor accumulation of Macromolecules: a great difference in clearance rate between tumor and normal tissues,” Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 307–314, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  222. A. K. Iyer, G. Khaled, J. Fang, and H. Maeda, “Exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention effect for tumor targeting,” Drug Discovery Today, vol. 11, no. 17-18, pp. 812–818, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  223. H. Maeda, J. Wu, T. Sawa, Y. Matsumura, and K. Hori, “Tumor vascular permeability and the EPR effect in macromolecular therapeutics: a review,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 65, no. 1-2, pp. 271–284, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  224. Z. Xu, L. Chen, W. Gu et al., “The performance of docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles targeted to hepatocellular carcinoma,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 226–232, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  225. J. Dausend, A. Musyanovych, M. Dass et al., “Uptake mechanism of oppositely charged fluorescent nanoparticles in HeLa cells,” Macromolecular Bioscience, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1135–1143, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  226. E. Chang, N. Thekkek, W. W. Yu, V. L. Colvin, and R. Drezek, “Evaluation of quantum dot cytotoxicity based on intracellular uptake,” Small, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 1412–1417, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  227. T. Xia, M. Kovochich, M. Liong, J. I. Zink, and A. E. Nel, “Cationic polystyrene nanosphere toxicity depends on cell-specific endocytic and mitochondrial injury pathways,” ACS Nano, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 85–96, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  228. L. Guo, Y. Peng, J. Yao, L. Sui, A. Gu, and J. Wang, “Anticancer activity and molecular mechanism of resveratrol-bovine serum albumin nanoparticles on subcutaneously implanted human primary ovarian carcinoma cells in nude mice,” Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 471–477, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  229. K. Teskač and J. Kristl, “The evidence for solid lipid nanoparticles mediated cell uptake of resveratrol,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 390, no. 1, pp. 61–69, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  230. Z.-R. Huang, S.-C. Hua, Y.-L. Yang, and J.-Y. Fang, “Development and evaluation of lipid nanoparticles for camptothecin delivery: a comparison of solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, and lipid emulsion,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1094–1102, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  231. D. Liu, Z. Liu, L. Wang, C. Zhang, and N. Zhang, “Nanostructured lipid carriers as novel carrier for parenteral delivery of docetaxel,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 262–269, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  232. S.-H. Hsu, C.-J. Wen, S. A. Al-Suwayeh, Y.-J. Huang, and J.-Y. Fang, “Formulation design and evaluation of quantum dot-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for integrating bioimaging and anticancer therapy,” Nanomedicine, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 1253–1269, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  233. K. S. Ho and M. S. Shoichet, “Design considerations of polymeric nanoparticle micelles for chemotherapeutic delivery,” Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  234. H. Yao, S. S. Ng, L.-F. Huo et al., “Effective melanoma immunotherapy with interleukin-2 delivered by a novel polymeric nanoparticle,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1082–1092, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  235. A. R. Khuda-Bukhsh, S. S. Bhattacharyya, S. Paul, and N. Boujedaini, “Polymeric nanoparticle encapsulation of a naturally occurring plant scopoletin and its effects on human melanoma cell A375,” Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 853–862, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  236. S. Das, J. Das, A. Samadder, A. Paul, and A. R. Khuda-Bukhsh, “Strategic formulation of apigenin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for intracellular trafficking, DNA targeting and improved therapeutic effects in skin melanoma in vitro,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 223, no. 2, pp. 124–138, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  237. D. Vieira, V. Kim, D. Petri, C. Menck, and A. Carmona-Ribeiro, “Polymer-based delivery vehicle for cisplatin,” Nanotechnology, vol. 3, pp. 382–385, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  238. V. Mailänder, M. R. Lorenz, V. Holzapfel et al., “Carboxylated superparamagnetic iron oxide particles label cells intracellularly without transfection agents,” Molecular Imaging and Biology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 138–146, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  239. A. Ades, J. P. Carvalho, S. R. Graziani et al., “Uptake of a cholesterol-rich emulsion by neoplastic ovarian tissues,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 84–87, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  240. D. Gal, M. Ohashi, P. C. MacDonald, H. J. Buchsbaum, and E. R. Simpson, “Low-density lipoprotein as a potential vehicle for chemotherapeutic agents and radionucleotides in the management of gynecologic neoplasms,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 139, no. 8, pp. 877–885, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  241. M. J. Rudling, V. P. Collins, and C. O. Peterson, “Delivery of aclacinomycin A to human glioma cells in vitro by the low-density lipoprotein pathway,” Cancer Research, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 4600–4605, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  242. M. Masquelier, S. Vitols, and C. Peterson, “Low-density lipoprotein as a carrier of antitumoral drugs: in vivo fate of drug-human-low-density lipoprotein complexes in mice,” Cancer Research, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 3842–3847, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  243. B. Lundberg, “Preparation of drug low density lipoprotein complexes for delivery of antitumoral drugs via the low density lipoprotein pathway,” Cancer Research, vol. 47, no. 15, pp. 4105–4108, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  244. H. Jin, J. F. Lovell, J. Chen et al., “Cytosolic delivery of LDL nanoparticle cargo using photochemical internalization,” Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 810–816, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  245. R. R. Allison and K. Moghissi, “Oncologic photodynamic therapy: clinical strategies that modulate mechanisms of action,” Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 331–341, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  246. C. J. Field and P. D. Schley, “Evidence for potential mechanisms for the effect of conjugated linoleic acid on tumor metabolism and immune function: lessons from n-3 fatty acids,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 1190S–1198S, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  247. J. S. Falconer, J. A. Ross, K. C. H. Fearon, R. A. Hawkins, M. G. O'Riordain, and D. C. Carter, “Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid and other fatty acids on the growth in vitro of human pancreatic cancer cell lines,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 826–832, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  248. S. Jaracz, J. Chen, L. V. Kuznetsova, and I. Ojima, “Recent advances in tumor-targeting anticancer drug conjugates,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 17, pp. 5043–5054, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  249. X.-Y. Yang, Y.-X. Li, M. Li, L. Zhang, L.-X. Feng, and N. Zhang, “Hyaluronic acid-coated nanostructured lipid carriers for targeting paclitaxel to cancer,” Cancer Letters, vol. 334, no. 2, pp. 338–345, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  250. K. Y. Choi, H. Chung, K. H. Min et al., “Self-assembled hyaluronic acid nanoparticles for active tumor targeting,” Biomaterials, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 106–114, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  251. K. Y. Choi, K. H. Min, H. Y. Yoon et al., “PEGylation of hyaluronic acid nanoparticles improves tumor targetability in vivo,” Biomaterials, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1880–1889, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  252. J. D. Byrne, T. Betancourt, and L. Brannon-Peppas, “Active targeting schemes for nanoparticle systems in cancer therapeutics,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 60, no. 15, pp. 1615–1626, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  253. J. F. Kukowska-Latallo, K. A. Candido, Z. Cao et al., “Nanoparticle targeting of anticancer drug improves therapeutic response in animal model of human epithelial cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 5317–5324, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  254. C. P. Leamon and J. A. Reddy, “Folate-targeted chemotherapy,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 1127–1141, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  255. Y. Malam, M. Loizidou, and A. M. Seifalian, “Liposomes and nanoparticles: nanosized vehicles for drug delivery in cancer,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 592–599, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  256. D. Labarre, C. Vauthier, C. Chauvierre, B. Petri, R. Müller, and M. M. Chehimi, “Interactions of blood proteins with poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles decorated with a polysaccharidic brush,” Biomaterials, vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 5075–5084, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  257. R.-L. Hong, C.-J. Huang, Y.-L. Tseng et al., “Direct comparison of liposomal doxorubicin with or without polyethylene glycol coating in C-26 tumor-bearing mice: is surface coating with polyethylene glycol beneficial?” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 3645–3652, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  258. Y. Sheng, C. Liu, Y. Yuan et al., “Long-circulating polymeric nanoparticles bearing a combinatorial coating of PEG and water-soluble chitosan,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 2340–2348, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  259. S. Krasnici, A. Werner, M. E. Eichhorn et al., “Effect of the surface charge of liposomes on their uptake by angiogenic tumor vessels,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 561–567, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  260. R. Kunstfeld, G. Wickenhauser, U. Michaelis et al., “Paclitaxel encapsulated in cationic liposomes diminishes tumor angiogenesis and melanoma growth in a ‘humanized’ SCID mouse model,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 476–482, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  261. S. Ran, A. Downes, and P. E. Thorpe, “Increased exposure of anionic phospholipids on the surface of tumor blood vessels,” Cancer Research, vol. 62, no. 21, pp. 6132–6140, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  262. A. S. Hoffman, “Hydrogels for biomedical applications,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 64, pp. 18–23, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  263. T. P. Chelvi and R. Ralhan, “Designing of thermosensitive liposomes from natural lipids for multimodality cancer therapy,” International Journal of Hyperthermia, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 685–695, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  264. S. Batzri and E. D. Korn, “Single bilayer liposomes prepared without sonication,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta—Biomembranes, vol. 298, no. 4, pp. 1015–1019, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  265. J. J. Escobar-Chávez, “Nanocarriers for transdermal drug delivery,” Skin, vol. 19, p. 22, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  266. M. R. Mozafari, “Liposomes: an overview of manufacturing techniques,” Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 711–719, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  267. M. Malmsten, “Soft drug delivery systems,” Soft Matter, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 760–769, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  268. R. A. Rajewski and V. J. Stella, “Pharmaceutical applications of cyclodextrins. 2. In vivo drug delivery,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 85, no. 11, pp. 1142–1169, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  269. A. F. Soares, R. D. A. Carvalho, and F. Veiga, “Oral administration of peptides and proteins: nanoparticles and cyclodextrins as biocompatible delivery systems,” Nanomedicine, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 183–202, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  270. P. S. Prestes, M. Chorilli, L. A. Chiavacci, M. V. Scarpa, and G. R. Leonardi, “Physicochemical characterization and rheological behavior evaluation of the liquid crystalline mesophases developed with different silicones,” Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 117–123, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  271. M. Rückert and G. Otting, “Alignment of biological macromolecules in novel nonionic liquid crystalline media for NMR experiments,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 122, no. 32, pp. 7793–7797, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  272. E. B. Souto, P. Severino, M. H. A. Santana, and S. C. Pinho, “Solid lipid nanoparticles: classical methods of lab production,” Quimica Nova, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1762–1769, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  273. S. Shi, L. Han, L. Deng et al., “Dual drugs (microRNA-34a and paclitaxel)-loaded functional solid lipid nanoparticles for synergistic cancer cell suppression,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 194, pp. 228–237, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  274. L. Mazzarino, L. F. C. Silva, J. C. Curta et al., “Curcumin-loaded lipid and polymeric nanocapsules stabilized by nonionic surfactants: an in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity on B16-F10 melanoma and macrophage uptake comparative study,” Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 406–414, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  275. L. Cai, X. Wang, W. Wang et al., “Peptide ligand and PEG-mediated long-circulating liposome targeted to FGFR overexpressing tumor in vivo,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 7, pp. 4499–4510, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  276. Y. Barenholz, “Doxil—The first FDA-approved nano-drug: lessons learned,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 117–134, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  277. A. S. Yang and P. B. Chapman, “The history and future of chemotherapy for melanoma,” Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 583–597, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  278. M. Ugurel, D. Schadendorf, W. Fink et al., “Clinical phase II study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin as second-line treatment in disseminated melanoma,” Onkologie, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 540–544, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  279. W.-J. Hwu, K. S. Panageas, J. H. Menell et al., “Phase II study of temozolomide plus pegylated interferon-α-2b for metastatic melanoma,” Cancer, vol. 106, no. 11, pp. 2445–2451, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  280. P. Decuzzi and M. Ferrari, “The receptor-mediated endocytosis of nonspherical particles,” Biophysical Journal, vol. 94, no. 10, pp. 3790–3797, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  281. H. K. Sajja, M. P. East, H. Mao, Y. A. Wang, S. Nie, and L. Yang, “Development of multifunctional nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and noninvasive imaging of therapeutic effect,” Current Drug Discovery Technologies, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 43–51, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  282. D. Rosenblum and D. Peer, “Omics-based nanomedicine: the future of personalized oncology,” Cancer Letters, vol. 352, no. 1, pp. 126–136, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus