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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 842975, 20 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/842975
Review Article

Comprehensive Review of Adipose Stem Cells and Their Implication in Distraction Osteogenesis and Bone Regeneration

1Division of Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Shriners Hospital for Children, Montreal Children Hospital, McGill University, 1529 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, QC, Canada H3G 1A6
2Department of Experimental Surgery, McGill University, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, QC, Canada H3G 1A4
3Orthopaedics Department, Shriners Hospital for Children, 1529 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, QC, Canada H3G 1A6
4McGill University Health Centre, Shriners Hospital for Children, Montreal Children Hospital, 1529 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, QC, Canada H3G 1A6

Received 13 March 2015; Accepted 2 August 2015

Academic Editor: Aijun Wang

Copyright © 2015 Mina W. Morcos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Bone is one of the most dynamic tissues in the human body that can heal following injury without leaving a scar. However, in instances of extensive bone loss, this intrinsic capacity of bone to heal may not be sufficient and external intervention becomes necessary. Several techniques are available to address this problem, including autogenous bone grafts and allografts. However, all these techniques have their own limitations. An alternative method is the technique of distraction osteogenesis, where gradual and controlled distraction of two bony segments after osteotomy leads to induction of new bone formation. Although distraction osteogenesis usually gives satisfactory results, its major limitation is the prolonged duration of time required before the external fixator is removed, which may lead to numerous complications. Numerous methods to accelerate bone formation in the context of distraction osteogenesis have been reported. A viable alternative to autogenous bone grafts for a source of osteogenic cells is mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow. However, there are certain problems with bone marrow aspirate. Hence, scientists have investigated other sources for mesenchymal stem cells, specifically adipose tissue, which has been shown to be an excellent source of mesenchymal stem cells. In this paper, the potential use of adipose stem cells to stimulate bone formation is discussed.