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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 848762, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/848762
Review Article

Multifaceted Roles of Cysteinyl Leukotrienes in Eliciting Eosinophil Granule Protein Secretion

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (CCS), 373 Carlos Chagas Filho Avenue, Room F 14, 1st Floor, Ilha do Fundão, 21941-590 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Received 12 June 2014; Accepted 9 October 2014

Academic Editor: Ruxana Sadikot

Copyright © 2015 Renata Baptista-dos-Reis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are cell membrane-impermeant lipid mediators that play major roles in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic inflammation and are recognized to act via at least 2 receptors, namely, cysLT1 receptor (cysLT1R) and cysLT2 receptor (cysLT2R). Eosinophils, which are granulocytes classically associated with host defense against parasitic helminthes and allergic conditions, are distinguished from leukocytes by their dominant population of cytoplasmic crystalloid (also termed secretory, specific, or secondary) granules that contain robust stores of diverse preformed proteins. Human eosinophils are the main source of cysLTs and are recognized to express both cysLTs receptors (cysLTRs) on their surface, at the plasma membrane. More recently, we identified the expression of cysLTRs in eosinophil granule membranes and demonstrated that cysLTs, acting via their granule membrane-expressed receptors, elicit secretion from cell-free human eosinophil granules. Herein, we review the multifaceted roles of cysLTs in eliciting eosinophil granule protein secretion. We discuss the intracrine and autocrine/paracrine secretory responses evoked by cysLTs in eosinophils and in cell-free extracellular eosinophil crystalloid granules. We also discuss the importance of this finding in eosinophil immunobiology and speculate on its potential role(s) in eosinophilic diseases.