Table 1: Studies using batch culture fermentation.

ReferenceFecal concentrationPhenolic compound/foodDoseTime of incubationMicrobial techniqueGrowth enhancementGrowth inhibitionNo effect

Tzounis et al. (2008) [44]10%, w/v(+)-catechin150 mg/L, 1000 mg/L<48 hFISHLactobacillus-Enterococcus spp.
Bifidobacterium spp.
C. coccoides-E. rectale group 
E. coli
C. histolyticum group

Molan et al. (2009) [46]0.1%, v/vBlueberry extracts5, 10 and 25%48 hFISHLactobacilli
Bifidobacteria

Bialonska et al. (2010) [47]10%, w/vPomegranate extract and punicalagin10%48 hFISHTotal bacteria
Bifidobacterium spp.
Lactobacillus-Enterococcus spp.
C. coccoides-E. rectale group 
C. histolyticum group

Mandalari et al. (2010) [48]10%, w/vAlmond skins1%, w/v predigested almond skins<24 hFISHBifidobacteria 
C. coccoides-E. rectale group
C. histolyticum group

Fogliano et al. (2011) [49]5%, w/vWater-insoluble cocoa fraction1%, w/v36 hFISHBifidobacteria
Lactobacilli

Cueva et al. (2013) [51]10%, w/vGrape seed extract fractions300–450 mg/L<48 hFISHLactobacillus-Enterococcus spp.C. histolyticum group

Hidalgo et al. (2012) [45]10%, w/vMalvidin-3-O-glucoside
Anthocyanidins mixture
20 mg/L and 200 mg/L
4850 mg/L and 48500 mg/L
<24 hFISHLactobacillus-Enterococcus spp.
Bifidobacterium spp.
C. coccoides-E. rectale group

Sánchez-Patán et al. (2012) [52]1% w/vRed wine extract600 mg/L48 hFISHC. histolyticum groupLactobacillus-Enterococcus spp.

Barroso et al. (2013) [53]Red wine extract500 mg/L48 hqPCRLactobacillus spp.
Bifidobacterium spp.
Bacteroides spp.
Ruminococcus spp.