Table 2: Studies using the gastrointestinal simulators (i.e., SHIME).

ReferenceSimulatorPhenolic compound/foodDoseTimeMicrobial techniquePopulation increasePopulation decrease

De Boever et al. (2000) [57]SHIMESoy germ powder2.5 g/day2 weeksPlate countEnterobacteriaceae 
Coliforms
Lactobacillus spp.  
Staphylococcus spp.  
Clostridium spp.

Kemperman et al. (2013) [31]Twin-SHIMEBlack tea extract3 × daily dosing (1000 mg polyphenols as total daily dose)2 weeksPlate count
qPCR
PCR-DGGE
pyrosequencing
Klebsiella spp.
Enterococci
Akkermansia spp.
Bifidobacteria
Blautia coccoides
Anaeroglobus spp.
Victivallis spp.

Kemperman et al. (2013) [31]Twin-SHIMERed wine-grape extract3 × daily dosing (1000 mg polyphenols as total daily dose)2 weeksPlate count
qPCR
PCR-DGGE
pyrosequencing
Klebsiella spp.
Alistipes spp.
Cloacibacillus spp.
Victivallis spp.
Akkermansia spp.
Bifidobacteria
Blautia coccoides group
Anaeroglobus spp.
Subdoligranulum spp.
Bacteroides