Table 4: Human intervention studies.

ReferenceVolunteer numberPhenolic compound/foodDoseTreatment durationMicrobial techniquePopulation increasePopulation decreaseNo effect

Okubo et al. (1994) [73]8Green tea (Sunphenon)0.4 g/3 times per day4 weeksPlate countC. perfringens
Clostridium spp.

Yamakoshi et al. (2001) [76]9Proantocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds0.5 g/day6 weeksPlate countBifidobacterium spp.Enterobacteriaceae

Mai et al. (2004) [74]15Black tea700 mg tea solids/5 times per day21 daysFISH DGGETotal bacteriaNo changes

Clavel et al. (2005) [83]39Isoflavones100 mg/day2 monthsTTGE FISHC. coccoides-E. rectale group
Bifidobacterium spp.
Lactobacillus-Enterococcus spp.
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii subgroup

Costabile et al. (2008) [84]31Whole grain wheat cereals48 g/day3 weeksFISHBifidobacteria LactobacilliTotal bacteria
Bacteroides spp.
C. histolyticum/perfringens group
Acetobacterium spp.

Jaquet et al. (2009) [87]16Coffee3 cups/day3 weeksFISH DGGEBifidobacterium spp.

Carvalho-Wells et al. (2010) [85]32Whole grain maize cereals48 g/day3 weeksFISHBifidobacteriaTotal bacteria
Bacteroides spp.
C. histolyticum/perfringens group
Acetobacterium spp.

Gill et al. (2010) [80]10Raspberry puree20 g/day4 daysPCR-DGGENo changes in the profile of colonic bacteria

Shinohara et al. (2010) [79]8Apples2 apples/day2 weeksPlate countLactobacillus spp.
Streptococcus spp.
Enterococcus spp.
Enterobacteriaceae lecithinase-positive clostridia including C. perfringens, Pseudomonas spp.

Tzounis et al. (2011) [77]22Cocoa flavanol494 mg/day 29 mg/day4 weeksFISHBifidobacterium spp.
Lactobacillus spp.
C. histolyticum/perfringens group

Vendrame et al. (2011) [81]15Wild blueberry drink25 g wild blueberries/day6 weeksqPCRBifidobacterium spp.
L. acidophilus
Bacteroides spp.
Prevotella spp.
Enterococcus spp.
C. coccoides

Queipo-Ortuño et al. (2012) [78]10Red wine272 mL/day20 daysqPCREnterococcus spp.
Prevotella spp.
Bacteroides Bifidobacterium spp.
Bacteroides uniformis
Eggerthella lenta
Blautia coccoides-E. rectale group
Clostridium spp.
C. histolyticum group
Actinobacteria

Jin et al. (2012) [75]10Green tea1000 mL/day10 daysT-RFLP
qPCR
Bifidobacterium spp.

Guglielmetti et al. (2013) [82]15Wild blueberries drink25 g wild blueberries/day6 weeksqPCRB. longum subsp. infantis

Cuervo et al. (2014) [86]38Dairy products
Fruits
Vegetables
Cereals
Food intake was recorded using an annual food frequency questionnaireqPCRLactobacillus B. coccoides
C. leptum