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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 926291, 9 pages
Research Article

Repair of Cranial Bone Defects Using rhBMP2 and Submicron Particle of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Ceramics with Through-Hole

1Research Center for Biomineralization Disorders and Department of Pharmacology and Dental Therapeutics, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea
2RIS Foundation for Advanced Biomaterials, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea
3Center for Biomaterials, Korea Institute of Science & Technology, Seoul 130-650, Republic of Korea
4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chonnam National University Medical School and Hospital, Gwangju 501-757, Republic of Korea
5Megagen Implant, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-850, Republic of Korea

Received 22 April 2015; Accepted 24 June 2015

Academic Editor: Norbert R. Kuebler

Copyright © 2015 Byung-Chul Jeong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Recently a submicron particle of biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (BCP) with through-hole (donut-shaped BCP (d-BCP)) was developed for improving the osteoconductivity. This study was performed to examine the usefulness of d-BCP for the delivery of osteoinductive rhBMP2 and the effectiveness on cranial bone regeneration. The d-BCP was soaked in rhBMP2 solution and then freeze-dried. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy analyses confirmed that rhBMP2 was well delivered onto the d-BCP surface and the through-hole. The bioactivity of the rhBMP2/d-BCP composite was validated in MC3T3-E1 cells as an in vitro model and in critical-sized cranial defects in C57BL/6 mice. When freeze-dried d-BCPs with rhBMP2 were placed in transwell inserts and suspended above MC3T3-E1, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast-specific gene expression were increased compared to non-rhBMP2-containing d-BCPs. For evaluating in vivo effectiveness, freeze-dried d-BCPs with or without rhBMP2 were implanted into critical-sized cranial defects. Microcomputed tomography and histologic analysis showed that rhBMP2-containing d-BCPs significantly enhanced cranial bone regeneration compared to non-rhBMP2-containing control. These results suggest that a combination of d-BCP and rhBMP2 can accelerate bone regeneration, and this could be used to develop therapeutic strategies in hard tissue healing.