Table 1: miRNAs implicated in the regulation of peritoneal cavity homeostasis during peritoneal dialysis therapy.

miRNAStudy selectionModel(s)Target(s)Downstream signalingReferences

Downregulation: miR-31, miR-93, miR-100, miR-152, miR-497, miR-192, miR-194, and miR-200b
Upregulation: miR-122
Microarray analysis (rat PD model, 4 weeks, total peritoneal tissue) Rat PD model (4 weeks, total peritoneal tissue)NoNo[26]

Downregulation: miR-30aMicroarray analysis (rat PD model, 4 weeks, total peritoneal tissue)Rat PD model (4 weeks, total peritoneal tissue)
HMrSV5 and primary rat PMCs TGF-β1 stimulated
Total peritoneal tissue from PD patients
miR-30a stable overexpression in HMrSV5
Snail1&miR-30a acts as a negative regulator of TGF-β1 and induces Snail1-dependent EMT during peritoneal fibrosis[19]

Downregulation: miR-653, miR-598
Upregulation: miR-136, miR-703#, miR-30b, and miR-107
Microarray analysis (rat PD model, MGO-induced EMT, 1-2 weeks, total peritoneal tissue)Rat MGO-induced EMT PD model (1-2 weeks, total peritoneal tissue)
Rat MGO-induced EMT PD model with miR-30b-ASO
Ex vivo rat PMCs cultured in vitro
BMP7
(miR-30b)
BMP-7 is downregulated in rat MGO-induced EMT PD model, reverted by miR-30b-ASO, and directly targeted by miR-30b, which could antagonize TGF-β1 effects[29]

Downregulation: miR-200a-3p
Upregulation: miR-182-5p, miR-488-5p, miR-296-3p, and miR-292-5p
Microarray analysis (mouse PD model, 4 weeks, total peritoneal tissue) Mouse PD model (4 weeks, total peritoneal tissue)NoNo[32]

Downregulation: miR-129-5pMicroarray analysis (PDE-derived HPMCs from PD patients)PDE-derived HPMCs from PD patients
HMrSV5 TGF-β1 stimulated
miR-129-5p overexpression and SIP1/SOX4 knockdown in HMrSV5 TGF-β1 stimulated
SIP1, SOX4miR-129-5p modulates E-cadherin and vimentin expression by targeting SIP1 and SOX4 genes or by modulating the promoter activity of E-cadherin and vimentin by the TGF-β1/SIP1 pathway.
miR-125-5p protects MCs undergoing MMT TGF-β1-induced during PD and may exert protective effect targeting SIP1 and SOX4
[33]

Downregulation: miR-589Unpublished (preexperiment CAPD profile miRNAs)PDE-derived HPMCs from PD patients
PDE-derived HPMCs and HMrSV5 TGF-β1 stimulated
miR-589 overexpression in HMrSV5
NoNo[34]

Downregulation: miR-29bLiterature-based: studies on TGF-β1-mediated fibrosisMouse PD model with miR-29b overexpression (total omentum and peritoneal tissue)SP1&Blockade of the Sp1/TGF-β1/Smad3 pathway may be a mechanism by which miR-29b inhibited peritoneal fibrosis[20]

Downregulation: miRNA-200cLiterature-basedPDE-derived HPMCs from PD patientsNoNo[35]

Upregulation: miR-15, miR-21, and miR-192
No-changes: miR-377, miR-30, and miR-17
No-detection: miR-216a, miR-217
Literature-based: studies on potential EMT miRNAs PDE-derived cells from PD patientsNoNo[36]

Downregulation: miR-15a, let-7e
Upregulation: miR-193a
No-changes: miR-16, miR-21
Literature-based: studies related to kidney development and diseasesCultured HPMCs stimulated by D-glucose (time course, 48 h) as a EMT model NoNo[37]

miRNA sequence is not conserved between the model of study and human.
#miRNA sequence is not present in miRBase (v21, June 2014) for rat or human.
&Putative targets already described [19, 20].