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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 943415, 9 pages
Research Article

Joint Minimization of Uplink and Downlink Whole-Body Exposure Dose in Indoor Wireless Networks

1Information Technology Department, Ghent University/iMinds, Gaston Crommenlaan 8, 9050 Ghent, Belgium
2Orange Labs Networks and Carriers, 38-40 rue Général Leclerc, 92794 Issy Les Moulineaux, France

Received 4 September 2014; Accepted 12 November 2014

Academic Editor: Francisco Falcone

Copyright © 2015 D. Plets et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The total whole-body exposure dose in indoor wireless networks is minimized. For the first time, indoor wireless networks are designed and simulated for a minimal exposure dose, where both uplink and downlink are considered. The impact of the minimization is numerically assessed for four scenarios: two WiFi configurations with different throughputs, a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) configuration for phone call traffic, and a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) configuration with a high data rate. Also, the influence of the uplink usage on the total absorbed dose is characterized. Downlink dose reductions of at least 75% are observed when adding more base stations with a lower transmit power. Total dose reductions decrease with increasing uplink usage for WiFi due to the lack of uplink power control but are maintained for LTE and UMTS. Uplink doses become dominant over downlink doses for usages of only a few seconds for WiFi. For UMTS and LTE, an almost continuous uplink usage is required to have a significant effect on the total dose, thanks to the power control mechanism.