Research Article

Nanoscale Bonding between Human Bone and Titanium Surfaces: Osseohybridization

Figure 2

((a)–(c)) SEM images of implant sample. The bone-to-implant interface is clearly maintained upon removal of the implant from patients. (d) A chunk of material with the bone-to-implant contact area was focused ion beam (FIB) milled until totally free from the bulk sample.