Nanoscale Bonding between Human Bone and Titanium Surfaces: Osseohybridization
(a) Dark-field TEM images of the crystalized layer and amorphous layer are presented. In the dark-field view, crystalized structures are observed both in the bone and in the amorphous interface layer. And the obtained electron diffraction pattern of each is shown. The crystalized layer pattern matched hydroxyapatite of bone. (b) A spectrum of EELS containing elements of implant, interface, bone layer.