Table 2: Experimental studies on NAFLD and gut microbiota in mice.

ModelOutcomeReference no.

High-fat diet- (HFD-) fed mice versus controls subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) or hepatotoxin CCl4HFD mice subjected to BDL had an increase of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria[20]

Methionine-choline-deficient diet-fed mice versus HFD-fed miceInflammasome deficiency-associated changes in gut microbiota were associated with exacerbated hepatic steatosis and inflammation[21]

HFD-fed germ-free mice colonized with intestinal microbiota from a responder donor (developed hyperglycaemia and higher proinflammatory cytokines) or a nonresponderResponder-receiver developed hepatic macrovesicular steatosis and harbour distinct gut microbiota[22]

Low-fat diet based on palm oil (LFD-PO) fed mice versus HFD based on palm oil (HFD-PO) versus olive oil (HFD-OO) versus safflower oil (HFD-SO)The HFD-PO diet induced higher liver triglyceride content, reduced microbial diversity, and increased the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio[23]

HFD-fed mice versus low-fat diet-fed miceQuantitative variation in dietary choline induced an inverse quantitative variation in liver fat content; conversion of choline into methylamines by microbiota in mice on a HFD caused NAFLD[24]

HFD-fed mice versus HFD supplemented with chitin-glucan (CG) versus controlsCG treatment significantly decreased hepatic triglyceride accumulation, which was negatively correlated with specific bacteria of clostridial cluster XIVa, that is, Roseburia spp. [25]

High-fructose diet-fed mice supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGC) versus controls Supplementation with LGC reduced liver fat accumulation and increased intestinal Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes[26]

Methionine-choline-deficient-diet-fed mice (MCD) versus MCD-fed mice supplemented with Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) versus controlsBifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were markedly reduced by the MCD diet. Administration of LcS increased the L. casei subgroup and other lactic acid bacteria[27]

HFD-fed rats supplementation with an herbal formula (HF) versus no supplementation versus controlsSupplementation of HF decreased hepatic steatosis; Escherichia/Shigella were enriched in HFD-fed rats but decreased to control levels after HF treatment[28]

HFD-fed mice supplemented with Bacteroides uniformis CECT7771 versus controlsSupplementation with Bacteroides uniformis reduced NAFLD in HFD-mice; HFD resulted in marked changes in gut microbiota, partially restored by the intervention[29]

N-3 PUFA-depleted diet-fed mice supplemented with fructooligosaccharides (FOS) versus controlsSupplementation with FOS reverses NAFLD induced by n-3 PUFA-depleted diet; FOS-treated mice exhibited higher caecal Bifidobacterium spp. and lower Roseburia spp. content and reduced hepatic triglyceride accumulation[30]

Fructose-fed mice versus controls treated or not with antibiotics Hepatic fat accumulation was associated with a significant induction of TLR 1–4 and 6–8. The effects of fructose were attenuated in antibiotic-treated mice. No systematic alterations of microbiota were found[31]