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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 982072, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/982072
Research Article

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Comorbidities, Substance Use, and Social Outcomes among Men and Women in a Canadian Sample

1Population and Community Health Unit, Department of Family Medicine, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, Canada N6A 5C1
2Department of Sociology, Centre for Criminology and Sociological Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 2J4
3Department of Psychology, York University, LaMarsh Centre for Child and Youth Research, Toronto, ON, Canada M3J 1P3
4Complex Mental Illness, Forensic Service, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 2S1
5Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 2S1
6Department of Sociology, Collaborative Program in Addiction Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 2J4

Received 12 August 2014; Accepted 26 November 2014

Academic Editor: Sahoo Saddichha

Copyright © 2015 Evelyn Vingilis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can persist in adolescence and adulthood. Aim. To examine prevalence of ADHD symptoms and correlates in a representative sample of adults 18 years and older living in Ontario, Canada. Method. We used the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Monitor, an ongoing cross-sectional telephone survey, to examine the relationships between ADHD positive symptoms and comorbidities, substance use, medication use, social outcomes, and sociodemographics. Results. Of 4014 residents sampled in 2011-2012, 3.30% (2.75%–3.85%) screened positively for ADHD symptoms (women = 3.6%; men = 3.0%). For men, distress, antisocial symptoms, cocaine use, antianxiety medication use, antidepressant medication use, and criminal offence arrest were associated with positive ADHD screen. For women, distress, cocaine use, antianxiety medication use, antidepressant medication use, pain medication use, and motor vehicle collision in the past year were associated with positive ADHD screen. Conclusions. ADHD symptoms are associated with adverse medical and social outcomes that are in some cases gender specific.