Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 982429, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/982429
Review Article

Could Histoplasma capsulatum Be Related to Healthcare-Associated Infections?

1Departamento de Microbiología-Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Circuito Interior, Ciudad Universitaria, Avenida Universidad 3000, 04510 México, DF, Mexico
2Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Avenida Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, 21040-360 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
3Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú Km 1, 14801-902 Araraquara, SP, Brazil

Received 30 October 2014; Revised 12 May 2015; Accepted 12 May 2015

Academic Editor: Kurt G. Naber

Copyright © 2015 Laura Elena Carreto-Binaghi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. McKibben, T. Horan, J. I. Tokars et al., “Guidance on public reporting of healthcare-associated infections: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee,” American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 217–226, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. D. Siegel, E. Rhinehart, M. Jackson, and L. Chiarello, “2007 Guideline for isolation precautions: preventing transmission of infectious agents in health care settings,” The American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. S65–S164, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. J. Alangaden, “Nosocomial fungal infections: epidemiology, infection control, and prevention,” Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 201–225, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs),” http://www.cdc.gov/HAI/surveillance/index.html.
  5. S. Khodavaisy, M. Nabili, B. Davari, and M. Vahedi, “Evaluation of bacterial and fungal contamination in the health care workers' hands and rings in the intensive care unit,” Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 215–218, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. J. Weber, D. Anderson, and W. A. Rutala, “The role of the surface environment in healthcare-associated infections,” Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 338–344, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Abdallah, C. Benoliel, D. Drider, P. Dhulster, and N.-E. Chihib, “Biofilm formation and persistence on abiotic surfaces in the context of food and medical environments,” Archives of Microbiology, vol. 196, no. 7, pp. 453–472, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. Hota, “Contamination, disinfection, and cross-colonization: are hospital surfaces reservoirs for nosocomial infection?” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1182–1189, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Sehulster and R. Y. W. Chinn, “Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC),” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Recommendations and Reports, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1–42, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Serrano, F. Barcenilla, and E. Limón, “Infección nosocomial en centros sanitarios de cuidados prolongados,” Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 191–198, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. K. Fridkin, D. Kaufman, J. R. Edwards, S. Shetty, and T. Horan, “Changing incidence of Candida bloodstream infections among NICU patients in the United States: 1995-2004,” Pediatrics, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. 1680–1687, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Girmenia, L. Pagano, B. Martino et al., “Invasive infections caused by Trichosporon species and Geotrichum capitatum in patients with hematological malignancies: a retrospective multicenter study from Italy and review of the literature,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 1818–1828, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. P. Kontoyiannis, H. A. Torres, M. Chagua et al., “Trichosporonosis in a tertiary care cancer center: risk factors, changing spectrum and determinants of outcome,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 564–569, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. V. Krcmery Jr., F. Mateička, A. Kunová et al., “Hematogenous trichosporonosis in cancer patients: report of 12 cases including 5 during prophylaxis with itraconazol,” Supportive Care in Cancer, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 39–43, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. C. Repetto, C. G. Giacomazzi, and F. Castelli, “Hospital-related outbreaks due to rare fungal pathogens: a review of the literature from 1990 to June 2011,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 2897–2904, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. R. Barber, A. E. Brown, T. E. Kiehn, F. F. Edwards, and D. Armstrong, “Catheter-related Malassezia furfur fungemia in immunocompromised patients,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 365–370, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Chryssanthou, U. Broberger, and B. Petrini, “Malassezia pachydermatis fungaemia in a neonatal intensive care unit,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 323–327, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S.-Y. Ruan, J.-Y. Chien, and P.-R. Hsueh, “Invasive trichosporonosis caused by Trichosporon asahii and other unusual Trichosporon species at a medical center in Taiwan,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. e11–e17, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Pemán and M. Salavert, “Epidemiología y prevención de las infecciones nosocomiales causadas por especies de hongos filamentosos y levaduras,” Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 328–341, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. K. A. Marr, R. A. Carter, M. Boeckh, P. Martin, and L. Corey, “Invasive aspergillosis in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: changes in epidemiology and risk factors,” Blood, vol. 100, no. 13, pp. 4358–4366, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. A. Marr, R. A. Carter, F. Crippa, A. Wald, and L. Corey, “Epidemiology and outcome of mould infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 909–917, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Antoniadou, “Outbreaks of zygomycosis in hospitals,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 15, supplement 5, pp. 55–59, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. Garner and K. Machin, “Investigation and management of an outbreak of mucormycosis in a paediatric oncology unit,” The Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Christiaens, M. P. Hayette, D. Jacquemin, P. Melin, J. Mutsers, and P. de Mol, “An outbreak of Absidia corymbifera infection associated with bandage contamination in a burns unit,” The Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 88–89, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. J. Anaissie, R. T. Kuchar, J. H. Rex et al., “Fusariosis associated with pathogenic Fusarium species colonization of a hospital water system: A new paradigm for the epidemiology of opportunistic mold infections,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1871–1878, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Nucci, K. A. Marr, F. Queiroz-Telles et al., “Fusarium infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1237–1242, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Sampathkumar and C. V. Paya, “Fusarium infection after solid-organ transplantation,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1237–1240, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. Orth, R. Frei, P. H. Itin et al., “Outbreak of invasive mycoses caused by Paecilomyces lilacinus from a contaminated skin lotion,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 125, no. 10, pp. 799–806, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Tarkkanen, V. Raivio, V.-J. Anttila et al., “Fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii following cataract surgery: a presumed operating room air-conditioning system contamination,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 232–235, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. A. Kainer, H. Keshavarz, B. J. Jensen et al., “Saline-filled breast implant contamination with Curvularia species among women who underwent cosmetic breast augmentation,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 192, no. 1, pp. 170–177, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Clark, G. D. Huhn, C. Conover et al., “Outbreak of bloodstream infection with the mold Phialemonium among patients receiving dialysis at a hemodialysis unit,” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1164–1170, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. A. Proia, M. K. Hayden, P. L. Kammeyer et al., “Phialemonium: an emerging mold pathogen that caused 4 cases of hemodialysis-associated endovascular infection,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 373–379, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. Y. Rao, C. Pachucki, S. Cali et al., “Contaminated product water as the source of Phialemonium curvatum bloodstream infection among patients undergoing hemodialysis,” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 840–847, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Strahilevitz, G. Rahav, H.-J. Schroers et al., “An outbreak of Phialemonium infective endocarditis linked to intracavernous penile injections for the treatment of impotence,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 781–786, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Alvarez, B. L. Ponga, C. Rayon et al., “Nosocomial outbreak caused by Scedosporium prolificans (inflatum): four fatal cases in leukemic patients,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 3290–3295, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Guerrero, P. Torres, M. T. Duran, B. Ruiz-Díez, M. Rosales, and J. L. Rodriguez-Tudela, “Airborne outbreak of nosocomial Scedosporium prolificans infection,” The Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9264, pp. 1267–1268, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. B. Ruiz-Díez, F. Martín-Díez, J. L. Rodríguez-Tudela, M. Alvárez, and J. V. Martínez-Suárez, “Use of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and PCR-fingerprinting for genotyping a Scedosporium prolificans (inflatum) outbreak in four leukemic patients,” Current Microbiology, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 186–190, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. D. C. Chang, G. B. Grant, K. O'Donnell et al., “Multistate outbreak of Fusarium keratitis associated with use of a contact lens solution,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 296, no. 8, pp. 953–963, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S.-M. Saw, P.-L. Ooi, D. T. H. Tan et al., “Risk factors for contact lens-related Fusarium keratitis: a case-control study in Singapore,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 611–617, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. J. Abzug, S. Gardner, M. P. Glode, M. Cymanski, M. H. Roe, and L. F. Odom, “Heliport-associated nosocomial mucormycoses,” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 325–326, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. J. Wilson, R. J. Everts, K. B. Kirkland, and D. J. Sexton, “A pseudo-outbreak of Aureobasidium species lower respiratory tract infections caused by reuse of single-use stopcocks during bronchoscopy,” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 470–472, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. N. Singh, O. Belen, M.-M. Léger, and J. M. Campos, “Cluster of Trichosporon mucoides in children associated with a faulty bronchoscope,” The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 609–612, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Singh, N. Singh, R. Kochhar, S. K. Mehta, and P. Talwar, “Contamination of an endoscope due to Trichosporon beigelli,” The Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 49–53, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. E. Hagan, S. A. Klotz, W. Bartholomew, L. Potter, and M. Nelson, “A pseudoepidemic of Rhodotorula rubra: a marker for microbial contamination of the bronchoscope,” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 727–728, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. K. K. Hoffmann, D. J. Weber, and W. A. Rutala, “Pseudoepidemic of Rhodotorula rubra in patients undergoing fiberoptic bronchoscopy,” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 511–514, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. W. L. Whitlock, R. A. Dietrich, E. H. Steimke, and M. F. Tenholder, “Rhodotorula rubra contamination in fiberoptic bronchoscopy,” Chest, vol. 102, no. 5, pp. 1516–1519, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Blake, J. M. Embil, E. Trepman, H. Adam, R. Myers, and P. Mutcher, “Pseudo-outbreak of Phaeoacremonium parasiticum from a hospital ice dispenser,” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1063–1065, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. M. Chabé, I. Durand-Joly, and E. dei-Cas, “La transmisson des infections à Pneumocystis,” Médecine Sciences, vol. 28, no. 6-7, pp. 599–604, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. G. J. De Boer, L. E. S. B. van Coppenraet, A. Gaasbeek et al., “An outbreak of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia with 1 predominant genotype among renal transplant recipients: interhuman transmission or a common environmental source?” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 1143–1149, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Gianella, L. Haeberli, B. Joos et al., “Molecular evidence of interhuman transmission in an outbreak of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia among renal transplant recipients,” Transplant Infectious Disease, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. F. Gigliotti and T. W. Wright, “Pneumocystis: where does it live?” PLoS Pathogens, vol. 8, no. 11, Article ID e1003025, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. B. Höcker, C. Wendt, A. Nahimana, B. Tönshoff, and P. M. Hauser, “Molecular evidence of Pneumocystis transmission in pediatric transplant unit,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 330–332, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. F. Miller, H. E. Ambrose, V. Novelli, and A. E. Wakefield, “Probable mother-to-infant transmission of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis Infection,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1555–1557, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. Morris and K. A. Norris, “Colonization by Pneumocystis jirovecii and its role in disease,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 297–317, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. L. M. Phipps, S. C.-A. Chen, K. Kable et al., “Nosocomial Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: lessons from a cluster in kidney transplant recipients,” Transplantation, vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 1327–1334, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Schmoldt, R. Schuhegger, T. Wendler et al., “Molecular evidence of nosocomial Pneumocystis jirovecii transmission among 16 patients after kidney transplantation,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 966–971, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. L. Vargas, C. A. Ponce, F. Gigliotti et al., “Transmission of Pneumocystis carinii DNA from a patient with P. carinii pneumonia to immunocompetent contact health care workers,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 1536–1538, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. E. Wakefield, A. R. Lindley, H. E. Ambrose, C.-M. Denis, and R. F. Miller, “Limited asymptomatic carriage of Pneumocystis jiroveci in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected patients,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 187, no. 6, pp. 901–908, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. E. Kaplan, C. Benson, K. K. Holmes, J. T. Brooks, A. Pau, and H. Masur, “Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Recommendations and Reports, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1–207, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  60. C. Damiani, F. Choukri, S. le Gal et al., “Possible nosocomial transmission of Pneumocystis jirovecii,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 877–878, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. A. Rostved, M. Sassi, J. A. L. Kurtzhals et al., “Outbreak of Pneumocystis pneumonia in renal and liver transplant patients caused by genotypically distinct strains of Pneumocystis jirovecii,” Transplantation, vol. 96, no. 9, pp. 834–842, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. le Gal, C. Damiani, A. Rouillé et al., “A cluster of pneumocystis infections among renal transplant recipients: molecular evidence of colonized patients as potential infectious sources of Pneumocystis jirovecii,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. e62–e71, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. L. E. Nicolle, J. McLeod, L. Romance, S. Parker, and M. Paraskevas, “Pseudo-outbreak of blastomycosis associated with contaminated bronchoscopes,” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, vol. 13, no. 6, p. 324, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. L. Taylor, M. R. Reyes-Montes, C. B. Chávez-Tapia et al., “Ecology and molecular epidemiology findings of Histoplasma capsulatum, in Mexico,” in Research Advances in Microbiology, R. M. Mojan and M. Benedik, Eds., pp. 29–35, Global Research Network, Kerala, India, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  65. T. Kasuga, T. J. White, G. Koenig et al., “Phylogeography of the fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 3383–3401, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. H. Anderson, L. Honish, G. Taylor et al., “Histoplasmosis cluster, golf course, Canada,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 163–165, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. M. Calanni, R. A. Pérez, S. Brasili et al., “Brote de histoplasmosis en la provincia de Neuquén, Patagonia Argentina,” Revista Iberoamericana de Micología, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 193–199, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. L. Taylor, C. B. Chávez-Tapia, R. Vargas-Yañez et al., “Environmental conditions favoring bat infection with Histoplasma capsulatum in Mexican shelters,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 914–919, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. R. Tewari, L. J. Wheat, and L. Ajello, “Agents of histoplasmosis,” in Medical Mycology, Topley & Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections, L. Ajello and R. J. Hay, Eds., pp. 373–407, Arnold and Oxoford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  70. M. L. Taylor, G. M. Ruíz-Palacios, M. D. R. Reyes-Montes et al., “Identification of the infectious source of an unusual outbreak of histoplasmosis, in a hotel in Acapulco, state of Guerrero, Mexico,” FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 435–441, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Histoplasmosis outbreak among day camp attendees—Nebraska, June 2012,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 61, no. 37, pp. 747–748, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. D. T. Haselow, H. Safi, D. Holcomb et al., “Histoplasmosis associated with a bamboo bonfire—arkansas, October 2011,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 165–168, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. Morgan, M. V. Cano, D. R. Feikin et al., “A large outbreak of histoplasmosis among American travelers associated with a hotel in Acapulco, Mexico, spring 2001,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 663–669, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. L. S. Dasmasceno, A. R. Novaes Jr., C. H. M. Alencar et al., “Disseminated histoplasmosis and aids: relapse and late mortality in endemic area in North-Eastern Brazil,” Mycoses, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 520–526, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. L. S. Damasceno, A. N. Ramos, C. H. Alencar et al., “Disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients: determinants of relapse and mortality in a north-eastern area of Brazil,” Mycoses, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 406–413, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. P. Couppié, C. Aznar, B. Carme, and M. Nacher, “American histoplasmosis in developing countries with a special focus on patients with HIV: diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis,” Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 443–449, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. M. Lo, J. Q. Mo, B. P. Dixon, and K. A. Czech, “Disseminated histoplasmosis associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in kidney transplant recipients,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 687–691, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. H. Trimarchi, M. Forrester, F. Lombi et al., “Histoplasmosis diseminada en un paciente trasplantado renal,” Nefrología, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 571–572, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  79. P. A. Isotalo, K. L. Chan, F. Rubens, D. S. Beanlands, F. Auclair, and J. P. Veinot, “Prosthetic valve fungal endocarditis due to histoplasmosis,” The Canadian Journal of Cardiology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 297–303, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. Jinno, B. M. Gripshover, T. L. Lemonovich, J. M. Anderson, and M. R. Jacobs, “Histoplasma capsulatum prosthetic valve endocarditis with negative fungal blood cultures and negative Histoplasma antigen assay in an immunocompetent patient,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 4664–4666, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. N. Lorchirachonkul, S. Foongladda, R. Ruangchira-Urai, and M. Chayakulkeeree, “Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum: the first case report in Thailand,” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, vol. 96, supplement 2, pp. S262–S265, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. W. Costerton, Z. Lewandowski, D. E. Caldwell, D. R. Korber, and H. M. Lappin-Scott, “Microbial biofilms,” Annual Review of Microbiology, vol. 49, pp. 711–745, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. L. E. Davis, G. Cook, and J. William Costerton, “Biofilm on ventriculoperitoneal shunt tubing as a cause of treatment failure in coccidioidal meningitis,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 376–379, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. S. P. Bachmann, K. VandeWalle, G. Ramage et al., “In vitro activity of caspofungin against Candida albicans biofilms,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 3591–3596, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. W. Costerton, R. Veeh, M. Shirtliff, M. Pasmore, C. Post, and G. Ehrlich, “The application of biofilm science to the study and control of chronic bacterial infections,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 112, no. 10, pp. 1466–1477, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. R. M. Donlan and J. W. Costerton, “Biofilms: survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 167–193, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. K. Lewis, “Riddle of biofilm resistance,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 999–1007, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. S. Lynch and G. T. Robertson, “Bacterial and fungal biofilm infections,” Annual Review of Medicine, vol. 59, pp. 415–428, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. B. Adam, G. S. Baillie, and L. J. Douglas, “Mixed species biofilms of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus epidermidis,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 344–349, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J. C. O. Sardi, N. S. Pitangui, G. Rodríguez-Arellanes, M. L. Taylor, A. M. Fusco-Almeida, and M. J. S. Mendes-Giannini, “Highlights in pathogenic fungal biofilms,” Revista Iberoamericana de Micología, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 22–29, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. B. W. Trautner and R. O. Darouiche, “Catheter-associated infections: pathogenesis affects prevention,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 164, no. 8, pp. 842–850, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. R. Patel, “Biofilms and antimicrobial resistance,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 437, pp. 41–47, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. M. S. Doggett, “Characterization of fungal biofilms within a municipal water distribution system,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 1249–1251, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. W. F. McCoy, J. D. Bryers, J. Robbins, and J. W. Costerton, “Observations of fouling biofilm formation,” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 910–917, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. T. Takuma, K. Okada, A. Yamagata, N. Shimono, and Y. Niki, “Mold colonization of fiberglass insulation of the air distribution system: effects on patients with hematological malignancies,” Medical Mycology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 150–156, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. P. W. J. J. van der Wielen and D. van der Kooij, “Nontuberculous mycobacteria, fungi, and opportunistic pathogens in unchlorinated drinking water in the Netherlands,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 825–834, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. L. A. Nagy and B. H. Olson, “The occurrence of filamentous fungi in drinking water distribution systems,” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 667–671, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. M. E. Davey and G. A. O'Toole, “Microbial biofilms: from ecology to molecular genetics,” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 847–867, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. R. Cauda, “Candidaemia in patients with an inserted medical device,” Drugs, vol. 69, supplement 1, pp. 33–38, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. E. M. Kojic and R. O. Darouiche, “Candida infections of medical devices,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 255–267, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. G. Ramage, S. P. Saville, D. P. Thomas, and J. L. López-Ribot, “Candida biofilms: an update,” Eukaryotic Cell, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 633–638, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. D. Sychev, I. D. Maya, and M. Allon, “Clinical outcomes of dialysis catheter-related candidemia in hemodialysis patients,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 1102–1105, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. C. C. Chiou, T. T. Wong, H. H. Lin et al., “Fungal infection of ventriculoperitoneal shunts in children,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1049–1053, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. E. Mowat, C. Williams, B. Jones, S. McChlery, and G. Ramage, “The characteristics of Aspergillus fumigatus mycetoma development: is this a biofilm?” Medical Mycology, vol. 47, supplement 1, pp. S120–S126, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. F. T. Cannizzo, E. Eraso, P. A. Ezkurra et al., “Biofilm development by clinical isolates of Malassezia pachydermatis,” Medical Mycology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 357–361, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. D. D'Antonio, G. Parruti, E. Pontieri et al., “Slime production by clinical isolates of Blastoschizomyces capitatus from patients with hematological malignancies and catheter-related fungemia,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 787–789, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. J. C. O. Sardi, L. Scorzoni, T. Bernardi, A. M. Fusco-Almeida, and M. J. S. Mendes-Giannini, “Candida species: current epidemiology, pathogenicity, biofilm formation, natural antifungal products and new therapeutic options,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 62, part 1, pp. 10–24, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. M. T. Cushion, M. S. Collins, and M. J. Linke, “Biofilm formation by Pneumocystis spp,” Eukaryotic Cell, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 197–206, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. J. Gattlen, M. Zinn, S. Guimond, E. Körner, C. Amberg, and L. Mauclaire, “Biofilm formation by the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa: process, repeatability and cell attachment in a continuous biofilm reactor,” Biofouling, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 979–991, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. J. M. Nunes, F. C. Bizerra, R. C. Ferreira, and A. L. Colombo, “Molecular identification, antifungal susceptibility profile, and biofilm formation of clinical and environmental Rhodotorula species isolates,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 382–389, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. L. R. Martinez and A. Casadevall, “Cryptococcus neoformans biofilm formation depends on surface support and carbon source and reduces fungal cell susceptibility to heat, cold, and UV light,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 73, no. 14, pp. 4592–4601, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. T. B. Reynolds and G. R. Fink, “Bakers' yeast, a model for fungal biofilm formation,” Science, vol. 291, no. 5505, pp. 878–881, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. M. Dyavaiah, R. Ramani, D. S. Chu et al., “Molecular characterization, biofilm analysis and experimental biofouling study of Fusarium isolates from recent cases of fungal keratitis in New York State,” BMC Ophthalmology, vol. 7, article 1, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. G. Di Bonaventura, A. Pompilio, C. Picciani, M. Iezzi, D. D'Antonio, and R. Piccolomini, “Biofilm formation by the emerging fungal pathogen Trichosporon asahii: development, architecture, and antifungal resistance,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 3269–3276, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. R. Singh, M. R. Shivaprakash, and A. Chakrabarti, “Biofilm formation by zygomycetes: quantification, structure and matrix composition,” Microbiology, vol. 157, no. 9, pp. 2611–2618, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. S. J. Head, T. M. Dewey, and M. J. MacK, “Fungal endocarditis after transfemoral aortic valve implantation,” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 78, no. 7, pp. 1017–1019, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. C. Ledtke, S. J. Rehm, T. G. Fraser et al., “Endovascular infections caused by Histoplasma capsulatum: a case series and review of the literature,” Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 640–645, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. P. T. Wilmshurst, G. E. Venn, and S. J. Eykyn, “Histoplasma endocarditis on a stenosed aortic valve presenting as dysphagia and weight loss,” British Heart Journal, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 565–567, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. N. Patel and M. S. Bronze, “Histoplasma infection of aortofemoral bypass graft,” American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 347, no. 5, pp. 421–424, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. S. Bhatti, L. Vilenski, R. Tight, and R. A. Smego Jr., “Histoplasma endocarditis: clinical and mycologic features and outcomes,” Journal of Infection, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 2–9, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. N. S. Pitangui, J. C. O. Sardi, J. F. Silva et al., “Adhesion of Histoplasma capsulatum to pneumocytes and biofilm formation on an abiotic surface,” Biofouling, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 711–718, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. R. O. Suárez-Alvarez, A. Pérez-Torres, and M. L. Taylor, “Adherence patterns of Histoplasma capsulatum yeasts to bat tissue sections,” Mycopathologia, vol. 170, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. A. Ijaz and D. Choudhury, “A case of rare, fungal peritonitis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum in a patient on CAPD,” Nature Reviews Nephrology, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 435–439, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. M. Jain and S. G. Revankar, “A case of peritoneal histoplasmosis in a patient receiving chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis,” Mycoses, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 99–100, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. W. Lim, S. P. Chau, P. C. K. Chan, and I. K. P. Cheng, “Histoplasma capsulatum infection associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis,” Journal of Infection, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 179–182, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. J. O. Lopes, S. H. Alves, J. P. Benevenga, O. R. Regio, and A. Calil, “Histoplasma capsulatum peritonitis associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis,” Mycopathologia, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 101–102, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. J. O. Lopes, S. H. Alves, J. P. Benevenga, and A. C. Rose, “The second case of peritonitis due to Histoplasma capsulatum during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in Brazil,” Mycoses, vol. 37, no. 5-6, pp. 161–163, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. S. M. Marcic, P. L. Kammeyer, C. Aneziokoro, L. Bartnicki, S. Yong, and D. J. Leehey, “‘Culture-negative’ peritonitis due to Histoplasma capsulatum,” Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation, vol. 21, no. 10, p. 3002, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. A. Veeravagu, C. Ludwig, J. Q. Camara-Quintana, B. Jiang, N. Lad, and L. Shuer, “Fungal infection of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt: histoplasmosis diagnosis and treatment,” World Neurosurgery, vol. 80, no. 1-2, pp. 222.e5–222.e13, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. P. Albuquerque and A. Casadevall, “Quorum sensing in fungi—a review,” Medical Mycology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 337–345, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. S. Kügler, T. S. Sebghati, L. G. Eissenberg, and W. E. Goldman, “Phenotypic variation and intracellular parasitism by Histoplasma capsulatum,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 16, pp. 8794–8798, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. J. M. Hornby, S. M. Jacobitz-Kizzier, D. J. McNeel, E. C. Jensen, D. S. Treves, and K. W. Nickerson, “Inoculum size effect in dimorphic fungi: extracellular control of yeast-mycelium dimorphism in Ceratocystis ulmi,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 1356–1359, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. M. G. Roca, J. Arlt, C. E. Jeffree, and N. D. Read, “Cell biology of conidial anastomosis tubes in Neurospora crassa,” Eukaryotic Cell, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 911–919, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. K. R. Klimpel and W. E. Goldman, “Cell walls from avirulent variants of Histoplasma capsulatum lack α-(1,3)-glucan,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 2997–3000, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. D. L. Paterson and N. Singh, “Invasive aspergillosis in transplant recipients,” Medicine, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 123–138, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. J. A. Fishman, “Overview: fungal infections in the transplant patient,” Transplant Infectious Disease, vol. 4, supplement 3, pp. 3–11, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. M. Assi, S. Martin, L. J. Wheat et al., “Histoplasmosis after solid organ transplant,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 1542–1549, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. A. G. Freifeld, P. C. Iwen, B. L. Lesiak, R. K. Gilroy, R. B. Stevens, and A. C. Kalil, “Histoplasmosis in solid organ transplant recipients at a large Midwestern university transplant center,” Transplant Infectious Disease, vol. 7, no. 3-4, pp. 109–115, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. K. Y. Ibrahim, N. B. Carvalho, E. V. Mimicos, H. Yeh-Li, M. N. Sotto, and F. O. França, “Cutaneous and bone marrow histoplasmosis after 18 years of renal allograft transplant,” Mycopathologia, vol. 178, no. 3-4, pp. 273–278, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  140. J. Cuellar-Rodriguez, R. K. Avery, M. Lard et al., “Histoplasmosis in solid organ transplant recipients: 10 years of experience at a large transplant center in an endemic area,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 710–716, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. P. G. Pappas, B. D. Alexander, D. R. Andes et al., “Invasive fungal infections among organ transplant recipients: results of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (Transnet),” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1101–1111, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. C. A. Kauffman, A. G. Freifeld, D. R. Andes et al., “Endemic fungal infections in solid organ and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients enrolled in the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET),” Transplant Infectious Disease, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 213–224, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. N. Lan, D. T. Patil, and B. Shen, “Histoplasma capsulatum infection in refractory Crohn's disease of the pouch on anti-TNF biological therapy,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 281–283, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. B. J. van Welzen, K. J. van Erpecum, P.-J. A. Haas, F. J. ten Kate, and T. Mudrikova, “Severe cholestasis due to disseminated histoplasmosis under adalimumab-containing immunosuppressive therapy,” Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. e105–e107, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. D. W. Denning, A. Marinus, J. Cohen et al., “An EORTC multicentre prospective survey of invasive aspergillosis in haematological patients: diagnosis and therapeutic outcome. EORTC Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group,” The Journal of Infection, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 173–180, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. S. K. Fridkin and W. R. Jarvis, “Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 499–511, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. S. Heinemann, F. Symoens, B. Gordts, H. Jannes, and N. Nolard, “Environmental investigations and molecular typing of Aspergillus flavus during an outbreak of postoperative infections,” The Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 149–155, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. S. Krishnan, E. K. Manavathu, and P. H. Chandrasekar, “Aspergillus flavus: an emerging non-fumigatus Aspergillus species of significance,” Mycoses, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 206–222, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. C. F. Pegues, E. S. Daar, and A. R. Murthy, “The epidemiology of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis at a large teaching hospital,” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 370–374, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. P. D. Barnes and K. A. Marr, “Risks, diagnosis and outcomes of invasive fungal infections in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 139, no. 4, pp. 519–531, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. O. Lortholary, S. Ascioglu, P. Moreau et al., “Invasive aspergillosis as an opportunistic infection in nonallografted patients with multiple myeloma: a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 41–46, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. S. Niaré-Doumbo, A. C. Normand, Y. L. Diallo et al., “Preliminary study of the fungal ecology at the haematology and medical-oncology ward in Bamako, Mali,” Mycopathologia, vol. 178, no. 1-2, pp. 103–109, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. E. C. M. Williamson, M. R. Millar, C. G. Steward et al., “Infections in adults undergoing unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 560–568, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. A. Allard, D. Décarie, J.-L. Grenier, M.-C. Lacombe, and F. Levac, “Histoplasmosis outbreak associated with the renovation of an old house—Quebec, Canada, 2013,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 62, no. 51-52, pp. 1041–1044, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. A. Endimiani, K. M. Hujer, A. M. Hujer et al., “Are we ready for novel detection methods to treat respiratory pathogens in hospital-acquired pneumonia?” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 52, supplement 4, pp. S373–S383, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. C. Lo Passo, I. Pernice, A. Celeste, G. Perdichizzi, and F. Todaro-Luck, “Transmission of Trichosporon asahii oesophagitis by a contaminated endoscope,” Mycoses, vol. 44, no. 1-2, pp. 13–21, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. B. L. Gómez, “Molecular diagnosis of endemic and invasive mycoses: advances and challenges,” Revista Iberoamericana de Micología, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 35–41, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. N. Refojo, E. Duarte-Escalante, M. C. Dignani et al., “Genotipificación de aislamientos clínicos de Aspergillus flavus y su relación con aislamientos ambientales de un centro oncohematológico,” Revista Iberoamericana de Micología, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar