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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 985814, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/985814
Review Article

The Role of Microvesicles Derived from Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Lung Diseases

1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Chinese People’s Liberation Army Medical College, Beijing, China
2Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Chinese PLA Medical College, Beijing, China
3Institute of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Chinese PLA Medical College, Beijing, China

Received 11 July 2014; Accepted 23 August 2014

Academic Editor: Aaron W. James

Copyright © 2015 Jie Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Microvesicles (MVs) are membrane vesicles that are released by many types of cells and have recently been considered important mediators of cell-to-cell communication. MVs serve as a vehicle to transfer proteins and messenger RNA and microRNA (miRNA) to distant cells, which alters the gene expression, proliferation, and differentiation of the recipient cells. Several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capacity to reverse acute and chronic lung injury in different experimental models through paracrine mechanisms. This paracrine action may be partially accounted for by MVs that are derived from MSCs. MSC-derived MVs may confer a stem cell-like phenotype to injured cells with the consequent activation of self-regenerative programmers. In this review, we summarize the characteristics and biological activities of MSC-derived MVs, and we describe their potential in novel therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine to repair damaged tissues. Additionally, we provide an overview of studies that have assessed the role of MSC-derived MVs in lung diseases, including the mechanisms that may account for their therapeutic potential. Finally, we discuss the clinical use of MSC-derived MVs with several suggestions for enhancing their therapeutic efficiency.