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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 1081258, 11 pages
Research Article

Evidence of Allergic Reactions and Cardiopulmonary Impairments among Traders Operating from Foodstuff Warehouses

1Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, Nigeria
2Clinical Trial Consortium University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
3UNIRED Research Group, Hochschule Hannover (University of Applied Sciences and Arts), Hannover, Germany
4Department of Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences & Technology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
5Department of Physiotherapy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria
6National Open University of Nigeria, Owerri Study Centre, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
7Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria
8German UNESCO Unit on Bioethics, Fakultät III-Medien, Information und Design, Hochschule Hannover (University of Applied Sciences and Arts), Hannover, Germany
9Safety Molecular Laboratory, Rangers Avenue, Independence Layout, Enugu, Nigeria

Received 26 October 2016; Revised 19 November 2016; Accepted 24 November 2016

Academic Editor: Nikolaos Siafakas

Copyright © 2016 Sam Ibeneme et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Foodstuff traders operating from warehouses (FTFW) are potentially exposed to dangerous rodenticides/pesticides that may have adverse effects on cardiopulmonary function. Methods. Fifty consenting male foodstuff traders, comprising 15 traders (21–63 years) operating outside warehouses and 35 FTFW (20–64 years), were randomly recruited at Ogbete Market, Enugu, in a cross-sectional observational study of spirometric and electrocardiographic parameters. Seventeen FTFW (21–57 years) participated in focus group discussions. Qualitative and quantitative data were analysed thematically and with independent t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient at , respectively. Results. Most FTFW experienced respiratory symptoms, especially dry cough (97.1%) and wheezing (31.4%) with significant reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC) (; ), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (; ), maximum expiratory flow rate () (; ), and forced end-expiratory flow () (; ). The maximum mid-expiratory flow () was marginally decreased () with a significantly prolonged () QTc interval. Conclusion. Allergic response was evident in the FTFW. Significant decrease in FVC may negatively impact lung flow rates and explains the marginal decrease in , which implies a relative limitation in airflow of peripheral/distal airways and elastic recoil of the lungs. This is consistent with obstructive pulmonary disease; a significant decrease in /FEV1 supports this conclusion. Significant decrease in indicates abnormalities in the large airways/larynx just as significantly prolonged ventricular repolarization suggests cardiac arrhythmias.