Figure 7: Schematic representation of the p,p-DDE-induced effects in promyelocytic HL-60 cells. p,p-DDE induces PKCα and p38 activation as well as augmentation of the levels of C/EBPβ in nuclei. Calcium ions, oxidative stress, and PLA2 participate in the activation of the PKCα-p38 signalling pathway. A biologically plausible relationship between p,p-DDE and its effects on PKCα, p38, and C/EBPβ and morphological changes in promyelocytic HL-60 cells are indicated.