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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 1630365, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1630365
Review Article

Secondary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis: From Podocyte Injury to Glomerulosclerosis

1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju 220-701, Republic of Korea
2Departments of Physiology and Global Medical Science, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju 220-701, Republic of Korea

Received 25 December 2015; Accepted 10 March 2016

Academic Editor: Andreas Kronbichler

Copyright © 2016 Jae Seok Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common cause of proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome leading to end stage renal disease (ESRD). There are two types of FSGS, primary (idiopathic) and secondary forms. Secondary FSGS shows less severe clinical features compared to those of the primary one. However, secondary FSGS has an important clinical significance because a variety of renal diseases progress to ESRD thorough the form of secondary FSGS. The defining feature of FSGS is proteinuria. The key event of FSGS is podocyte injury which is caused by multiple factors. Unanswered questions about how these factors act on podocytes to cause secondary FSGS are various and ill-defined. In this review, we provide brief overview and new insights into FSGS, podocyte injury, and their potential linkage suggesting clues to answer for treatment of the disease.