Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 1752854, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1752854
Review Article

Roles and Clinical Applications of OPG and TRAIL as Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Disease

Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Cattinara Teaching Hospital, Strada di Fiume, 34149 Trieste, Italy

Received 29 January 2016; Revised 28 March 2016; Accepted 5 April 2016

Academic Editor: Laurent Metzinger

Copyright © 2016 Stella Bernardi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the major cause of death and premature disability in Western societies. Assessing the risk of CVD is an important aspect in clinical decision-making. Among the growing number of molecules that are studied for their potential utility as CVD biomarkers, a lot of attention has been focused on osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligands, which are receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. Based on the existing literature and on our experience in this field, here we review what the possible roles of OPG and TRAIL in CVD are and their potential utility as CVD biomarkers.