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Figure 3: Spheroidal cocultures containing primary human hepatocytes (PHHs). (a) Schematic of transverse cross section of bioprinted liver tissue from Organovo containing PHHs, endothelial cells (ECs), and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Image of the 3D bioprinting instrument is shown as well. (b) Gross image of bioprinted human liver tissue with 2.5 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thickness. (c) Albumin secretion in bioprinted liver tissues over time. (d) Comparison of H&E stained native liver and bioprinted liver. Images and data for panels (a)–(d) were provided by Organovo, Inc. (e) Human liver spheroids from InSphero contain PHHs, ECs, and Kupffer macrophages and can maintain their size for at least 33 days in vitro [36]. MT indicates individual micro tissue. (f) Human liver spheroids maintain intracellular ATP content and secrete albumin for 35 days. (g) Utility of InSphero human liver spheroids for measuring dose-dependent toxicity of different drugs following an incubation period of 14 days.