Table 1: Nanoparticle-based solutions for prevention and treatment of biofilm associated-medical device infections.

MaterialNanomaterial descriptionAntibiofilm devicesAntimicrobial mechanism of NPs

Inorganic NPsSilver NPs [1215]
Surface engineered gold NPs [16]
Urethral catheters, central venous catheters
Ventricular drain catheters
Released silver ion interacts with sulfhydryl groups of bacteria and interferes with cell membrane integrity, enzyme activities, respiratory chains, and cell proliferations [17].
Highly positive surface charge disrupts the network of EPS.

Organic NPsQuaternary ammonium chitosan NPs [18]
PEG stabilized lipid NPs [19]
Bone and dental cementsLong cationic polymer chains penetrate the cell membrane and can induce ion exchange to disrupt biofilm

Metallic/metal-polymer nanocompositesAg-Ti composites [20]
Silver or antibiotic conjugated NPs [21, 22]
Silver conjugated silicone NPs [23]
Diamond like carbon-metal nanocomposites [24]
Silicone containing antibiotic loaded liposome [25]
Polymeric silver NPs [26]
Silver nanoparticle coated surfaces [27]
Polycationic NPs [28]
Face masks
Heart valve
Catheter against fungi
Pedicle screws
Highly positive surface charge disrupts the network of EPS
Silver ions bound with deoxyribonucleic acid and interfere with electron transport, injuring bacterial enzymes and causing biofilm disruption

Metallic/metal-polymer nanocompositesZnO NP incorporated titanium implants [29]
TiO2 nanotube arrays [30]
Ag NP conjugated poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate)-co-acrylic acid (PEGDA-AA) hydrogel coatings on a Ti substrate
Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) loaded TiO2 nanotubes [31]
Ciprofloxacin-loaded nanochitosan coated Ti implants [32]
Polymeric NP based photodynamic therapy [33]
Orthopedic implants
ZnO alter protein adsorptions and intracellular mechanisms
Positive surface of QAS disintegrates the negatively charged bacteria
Released ciprofloxacin inhibits enzymes including DNA gyrase, and topoisomerase causes bacterial disruption
Free radicals interact with endogenous molecular oxygen to produce ROS, superoxide hydroxyl radicals, and hydrogen peroxide damages bacteria membrane integrity and causes irreparable bacteria lysis

Metallic/metal-polymer nanocompositesTi implant surfaces with ZnO NPs [34]
Nanostructured titania coating with Ag NPs [35]
Antibiotic incorporated silk fibroin NPs coated titanium surface [36]
Nanosilver-endodontic filling and dental adhesives [37, 38]
Oral implants
Endodontic filling and dental adhesives
Direct contact, ZnO release, ROS generation
Irreversible binding of gentamycin disrupts bacteria

Metallic/metal-polymer nanocompositesSilica NPs [39]
Hydrogel containing Ag NPs [40]
Zn-CuO nanocoating on contact lenses [41]
Quaternized chitosan loaded Ag NPs and antifungal agent conjugated graphene oxide [42]
Contact lensesReleased Ag ions disintegrate the bacteria and inhibit biofilm development
Voriconazole inhibits ergosterol synthesis by inhibiting 14-alpha sterol demethylase which produced antifungal activity.