Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 1934518, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1934518
Review Article

Sunlight Effects on Immune System: Is There Something Else in addition to UV-Induced Immunosuppression?

Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU), CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Buenos Aires, Argentina

Received 6 September 2016; Revised 2 November 2016; Accepted 6 November 2016

Academic Editor: Maxim E. Darvin

Copyright © 2016 D. H. González Maglio et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. S. Fisher and M. L. Kripke, “Systemic alteration induced in mice by ultraviolet light irradiation and its relationship to ultraviolet carcinogenesis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 1688–1692, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. S. Fisher and M. L. Kripke, “Further studies on the tumor-specific suppressor cells induced by ultraviolet radiation,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 1139–1144, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  3. S. E. Ullrich and M. L. Kripke, “Mechanisms in the suppression of tumor rejection produced in mice by repeated UV irradiation,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 133, no. 5, pp. 2786–2790, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. L. Kripke, “Antigenicity of murine skin tumors induced by ultraviolet light,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1333–1336, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Garssen, F. De Gruijl, D. Mol, A. De Klerk, P. Roholl, and H. Van Loveren, “UVA exposure affects UVB and cis-Urocanic acid-induced systemic suppression of immune responses in Listeria monocytogenes-infected Balb/c mice,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 432–438, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. K. Gibbs and M. Norval, “Urocanic acid in the skin: a mixed blessing?” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 14–17, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. R. Young, “Chromophores in human skin,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 789–802, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. G. M. Halliday, “Inflammation, gene mutation and photoimmunosuppression in response to UVR-induced oxidative damage contributes to photocarcinogenesis,” Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, vol. 571, no. 1-2, pp. 107–120, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. Shreedhar, T. Giese, V. W. Sung, and S. E. Ullrich, “A cytokine cascade including prostaglandin E2, IL-4, and IL-10 is responsible for UV-induced systemic immune suppression,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 160, no. 8, pp. 3783–3789, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. C. Miller, P. Hale, and A. P. Pentland, “Ultraviolet B injury increases prostaglandin synthesis through a tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway. Evidence for UVB-induced epidermal growth factor receptor activation,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 269, no. 5, pp. 3529–3533, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. L. Paz, A. Ferrari, F. S. Weill, J. Leoni, and D. H. Gonzalez Maglio, “Time-course evaluation and treatment of skin inflammatory immune response after ultraviolet B irradiation,” Cytokine, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 70–77, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Loser, J. Apelt, M. Voskort et al., “IL-10 controls ultraviolet-induced carcinogenesis in mice,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 179, no. 1, pp. 365–371, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. M. Rivas and S. E. Ullrich, “The role of IL-4, IL-10, and TNF-α in the immune suppression induced by ultraviolet radiation,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 769–775, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. M. Rivas and S. E. Ullrich, “Systemic suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity by supernatants from UV-irradiated keratinocytes: an essential role for keratinocyte-derived IL-10,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 149, no. 12, pp. 3865–3871, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Schwarz and T. Schwarz, “UVR-induced regulatory T cells switch antigen-presenting cells from a stimulatory to a regulatory phenotype,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 130, no. 7, pp. 1914–1921, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Ghoreishi and J. P. Dutz, “Tolerance induction by transcutaneous immunization through ultraviolet-irradiated skin is transferable through CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells and is dependent on host-derived IL-10,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 176, no. 4, pp. 2635–2644, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Gorman and P. H. Hart, “The current state of play of rodent models to study the role of vitamin D in UV-induced immunomodulation,” Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1788–1796, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Gorman, M. A. Judge, and P. H. Hart, “Topical 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 subverts the priming ability of draining lymph node dendritic cells,” Immunology, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 415–425, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. L. X. Ng, N. M. Scott, J. L. Bisley et al., “Characterization of regulatory dendritic cells differentiated from the bone marrow of UV-irradiated mice,” Immunology, vol. 140, no. 4, pp. 399–412, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. L. X. Ng, J. L. Bisley, S. Gorman, M. Norval, and P. H. Hart, “Ultraviolet irradiation of mice reduces the competency of bone marrow-derived CD11c+ cells via an indomethacin-inhibitable pathway,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 185, no. 12, pp. 7207–7215, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. H. Hart, M. A. Grimbaldeston, G. J. Swift, A. Jaksic, F. P. Noonan, and J. J. Finlay-Jones, “Dermal mast cells determine susceptibility to ultraviolet B-induced systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity responses in mice,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 187, no. 12, pp. 2045–2053, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. N. Byrne, A. Y. Limón-Flores, and S. E. Ullrich, “Mast cell migration from the skin to the draining lymph nodes upon ultraviolet irradiation represents a key step in the induction of immune suppression,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 180, no. 7, pp. 4648–4655, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. N. Byrne and G. M. Halliday, “B cells activated in lymph nodes in response to ultraviolet irradiation or by interleukin-10 inhibit dendritic cell induction of immunity,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 570–578, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. Matsumura, S. N. Byrne, D. X. Ngheim, Y. Miyahara, and S. E. Ullrich, “A role for inflammatory mediators in the induction of immunoregulatory B cells,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 177, no. 7, pp. 4810–4817, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. P. T. Steenvoorden and B. Van Henegouwen, “Protection against UV-induced systemic immunosuppression in mice by a single topical application of the antioxidant vitamins C and E,” International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 747–755, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. K. Armstrong and A. Kricker, “The epidemiology of UV induced skin cancer,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol. 63, no. 1-3, pp. 8–18, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. J. Miller, M. Alam, J. Andersen et al., “Basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers,” Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 836–864, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  28. G. Pennello, S. Devesa, and M. Gail, “Association of surface ultraviolet B radiation levels with melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer in United States blacks,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 291–297, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. B. L. Diffey, “Solar ultraviolet radiation effects on biological systems,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 299–328, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  30. M. Wacker and M. F. Holiack, “Vitamin D—effects on skeletal and extraskeletal health and the need for supplementation,” Nutrients, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 111–148, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. N. Khazai, S. E. Judd, and V. Tangpricha, “Calcium and vitamin D: skeletal and extraskeletal health,” Current Rheumatology Reports, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 110–117, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. G. M. Halliday, D. L. Damian, S. Rana, and S. N. Byrne, “The suppressive effects of ultraviolet radiation on immunity in the skin and internal organs: implications for autoimmunity,” Journal of Dermatological Science, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 176–182, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. H. Hart, S. Gorman, and J. J. Finlay-Jones, “Modulation of the immune system by UV radiation: more than just the effects of vitamin D?” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 584–596, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Norval and G. M. Halliday, “The consequences of UV-induced immunosuppression for human health,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 965–977, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. M. Dixon, W. Tongkao-On, V. B. Sequeira et al., “Vitamin D and death by sunshine,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1964–1977, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. M. Lucas and A.-L. Ponsonby, “Considering the potential benefits as well as adverse effects of sun exposure: can all the potential benefits be provided by oral vitamin D supplementation?” Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 140–149, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. M. Lucas, M. Norval, R. E. Neale et al., “The consequences for human health of stratospheric ozone depletion in association with other environmental factors,” Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 53–87, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. Schwarz and S. Beissert, “Milestones in photoimmunology,” The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. E7–E10, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. Schwarz, “Photoimmunosuppression,” Photodermatology, Photoimmunology and Photomedicine, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 141–145, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. Schwarz, “The dark and the sunny sides of UVR-induced immunosuppression: photoimmunology revisited,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 49–54, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Kannan and H. W. Lim, “Photoprotection and vitamin D: a review,” Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine, vol. 30, no. 2-3, pp. 137–145, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. S. N. Byrne, “How much sunlight is enough?” Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 840–852, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. V. E. Reeve, R. M. Tyrrell, M. Allanson, D. Domanski, and L. Blyth, “The role of interleukin-6 in UVA protection against UVB-induced immunosuppression,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 129, no. 6, pp. 1539–1546, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Majewski, C. Jantschitsch, A. Maeda, T. Schwarz, and A. Schwarz, “IL-23 antagonizes UVR-induced immunosuppression through two mechanisms: reduction of UVR-induced DNA damage and inhibition of UVR-induced regulatory T cells,” The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 554–562, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. Wang, S. C. Jameson, and K. A. Hogquist, “Epidermal langerhans cells are not required for UV-induced immunosuppression,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 183, no. 9, pp. 5548–5553, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Schwarz, F. Navid, T. Sparwasser, B. E. Clausen, and T. Schwarz, “1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D exerts similar immunosuppressive effects as UVR but is dispensable for local UVR-induced immunosuppression,” The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 132, no. 12, pp. 2762–2769, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. Gorman, N. M. Scott, D. H. W. Tan et al., “Acute erythemal ultraviolet radiation causes systemic immunosuppression in the absence of increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels in male mice,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 9, Article ID e46006, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Q. Zhang, Y. Yao, R. L. Konger et al., “UVB radiation-mediated inhibition of contact hypersensitivity reactions is dependent on the platelet-activating factor system,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 128, no. 7, pp. 1780–1787, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Guéniche, J. Benyacoub, T. M. Buetler, H. Smola, and S. Blum, “Supplementation with oral probiotic bacteria maintains cutaneous immune homeostasis after UV exposure,” European Journal of Dermatology, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 511–517, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. Li, R. Prasad, S. K. Katiyar, N. Yusuf, C. A. Elmets, and H. Xu, “Interleukin-17 mediated inflammatory responses are required for ultraviolet radiation-induced immune suppression,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 235–241, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Rana, L. J. Rogers, and G. M. Halliday, “Systemic low-dose UVB inhibits CD8 T cells and skin inflammation by alternative and novel mechanisms,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 178, no. 6, pp. 2783–2791, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. K. M. Dixon, A. W. Norman, V. B. Sequeira et al., “1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D and a nongenomic vitamin D analogue inhibit ultraviolet radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis,” Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 1485–1494, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. Schwarz, A. Maeda, M. K. Wild et al., “Ultraviolet radiation-induced regulatory T cells not only inhibit the induction but can suppress the effector phase of contact hypersensitivity,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 172, no. 2, pp. 1036–1043, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Gorman, J. W.-Y. Tan, J. A. Thomas et al., “Primary defect in UVB-induced systemic immunomodulation does not relate to immature or functionally impaired APCs in regional lymph nodes,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 174, no. 11, pp. 6677–6685, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. L. Wang, K. Saito, M. Toda et al., “UV irradiation after immunization induces type 1 regulatory T cells that suppress Th2-type immune responses via secretion of IL-10,” Immunobiology, vol. 215, no. 2, pp. 124–132, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. Wolf, C. Hoffmann, F. Quehenberger, S. Grinschgl, and H. Kerl, “Immune protection factors of chemical sunscreens measured in the local contact hypersensitivity model in humans,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 121, no. 5, pp. 1080–1087, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. Breuer, N. Schwab, T. Schneider-Hohendorf et al., “Ultraviolet B light attenuates the systemic immune response in central nervous system autoimmunity,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 739–758, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, About the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research—Sunburn Protection Factor (SPF), Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/CentersOffices/OfficeofMedicalProductsandTobacco/CDER/ucm106351.htm.
  59. D. A. Kelly, P. T. Seed, A. R. Young, and S. L. Walker, “A commercial sunscreen's protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression is more than 50% lower than protection against sunburn in humans,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 65–71, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. Fourtanier, D. Moyal, J. Maccario et al., “Measurement of sunscreen immune protection factors in humans: a consensus paper,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 403–409, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. J. Samanek, E. J. Croager, P. Gies et al., “Estimates of beneficial and harmful sun exposure times during the year for major Australian population centres,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 184, no. 7, pp. 338–341, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. Reichrath, “Vitamin D and the skin: an ancient friend, revisited,” Experimental Dermatology, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 618–625, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. R. Webb, R. Kift, M. T. Durkin et al., “The role of sunlight exposure in determining the vitamin D status of the U.K. white adult population,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 163, no. 5, pp. 1050–1055, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. R. Ralph, R. M. Lucas, and M. Norval, “Vitamin D and solar ultraviolet radiation in the risk and treatment of tuberculosis,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 77–88, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. P. Autier, M. Boniol, C. Pizot, and P. Mullie, “Vitamin D status and ill health: a systematic review,” The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 76–89, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. Narbutt, A. Lesiak, A. Sysa-Jedrzejowska et al., “Repeated low-dose ultraviolet (UV) B exposures of humans induce limited photoprotection against the immune effects of erythemal UVB radiation,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 156, no. 3, pp. 539–547, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. B. Petersen, H. C. Wulf, M. Triguero-Mas et al., “Sun and ski holidays improve vitamin D status, but are associated with high levels of DNA damage,” The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 134, no. 11, pp. 2806–2813, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. T. Yoshikawa, V. Rae, W. Bruins-Slot, J.-W. Van den Berg, J. R. Taylor, and J. W. Streilein, “Susceptibility to effects of UVB radiation on induction of contact hypersensitivity as a risk factor for skin cancer in humans,” The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 530–536, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. F. P. Noonan and H. A. Hoffman, “Susceptibility to immunosuppression by ultraviolet B radiation in the mouse,” Immunogenetics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 29–39, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. M. Welsh, M. R. Karagas, J. K. Kuriger et al., “Genetic determinants of UV-susceptibility in non-melanoma skin cancer,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 7, Article ID e20019, 9 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. E. Alamartine, P. Berthoux, C. Mariat, F. Cambazard, and F. Berthoux, “Interleukin-10 promoter polymorphisms and susceptibility to skin squamous cell carcinoma after renal transplantation,” The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 99–103, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. T. Nagano, M. Kunisada, X. Yu, T. Masaki, and C. Nishigori, “Involvement of interleukin-10 promoter polymorphisms in nonmelanoma skin cancers—a case study in non-Caucasian skin cancer patients,” Photochemistry & Photobiology, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 63–66, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. Friedrich, M. Paz, E. Cela, J. Leoni, and D. González Maglio, “Mitochondrial dysfunction and tissue alterations of ultraviolet-irradiated skin in five different mice strains,” Global Journal of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 4–12, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. P. Dungel, J. Hartinger, S. Chaudary et al., “Low level light therapy by LED of different wavelength induces angiogenesis and improves ischemic wound healing,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 773–780, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. S. Guffey and J. Wilborn, “Effects of combined 405-nm and 880-nm light on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro,” Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 680–683, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. T. Dai, A. Gupta, Y.-Y. Huang et al., “Blue light rescues mice from potentially fatal pseudomonas aeruginosa burn infection: efficacy, safety, and mechanism of action,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1238–1245, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. Mamalis, M. Garcha, and J. Jagdeo, “Light emitting diode-generated blue light modulates fibrosis characteristics: fibroblast proliferation, migration speed, and reactive oxygen species generation,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 210–215, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. F. Liebel, S. Kaur, E. Ruvolo, N. Kollias, and M. D. Southall, “Irradiation of skin with visible light induces reactive oxygen species and matrix-degrading enzymes,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 132, no. 7, pp. 1901–1907, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. S. Vandersee, M. Beyer, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Blue-violet light irradiation dose dependently decreases carotenoids in human skin, which indicates the generation of free radicals,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2015, Article ID 579675, 7 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. N. Maddodi, A. Jayanthy, and V. Setaluri, “Shining light on skin pigmentation: the darker and the brighter side of effects of UV radiation,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 1075–1082, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. L. Duteil, N. Cardot-Leccia, C. Queille-Roussel et al., “Differences in visible light-induced pigmentation according to wavelengths: a clinical and histological study in comparison with UVB exposure,” Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 822–826, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. P. Ramaswamy, J. G. Powers, J. Bhawan, I. Polyak, and B. A. Gilchrest, “Effective blue light photodynamic therapy does not affect cutaneous langerhans cell number or oxidatively damage DNA,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 979–987, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. D. Becker, E. Langer, M. Seemann et al., “Clinical efficacy of blue light full body irradiation as treatment option for severe atopic dermatitis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 6, Article ID e20566, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. M. R. Fischer, M. Abel, S. Lopez Kostka, B. Rudolph, D. Becker, and E. von Stebut, “Blue light irradiation suppresses dendritic cells activation in vitro,” Experimental Dermatology, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 558–560, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. G. Monfrecola, S. Lembo, M. Cantelli et al., “The effect of visible blue light on the differentiation of dendritic cells in vitro,” Biochimie, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 252–255, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. M. E. Darvin, S. F. Haag, J. Lademann, L. Zastrow, W. Sterry, and M. C. Meinke, “Formation of free radicals in human skin during irradiation with infrared light,” The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 629–631, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. P. Schroeder, C. Pohl, C. Calles, C. Marks, S. Wild, and J. Krutmann, “Cellular response to infrared radiation involves retrograde mitochondrial signaling,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 128–135, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. P. Schroeder, J. Lademann, M. E. Darvin et al., “Infrared radiation-induced matrix metalloproteinase in human skin: implications for protection,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 128, no. 10, pp. 2491–2497, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. C. Jantschitsch, S. Majewski, A. Maeda, T. Schwarz, and A. Schwarz, “Infrared radiation confers resistance to UV-induced apoptosis via reduction of DNA damage and upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins,” The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 1271–1279, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. C. Jantschitsch, M. Weichenthal, A. Maeda, E. Proksch, T. Schwarz, and A. Schwarz, “Infrared radiation does not enhance the frequency of ultraviolet radiation-induced skin tumors, but their growth behaviour in mice,” Experimental Dermatology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 346–350, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. C.-H. Lee, C.-H. Hong, W.-T. Liao, and H.-S. Yu, “Differential immunological effects of infrared irradiation and its associated heat in vivo,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol. 155, pp. 98–103, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. S. Y. Celine Lee, I.-W. Seong, J.-S. Kim et al., “Enhancement of cutaneous immune response to bacterial infection after low-level light therapy with 1072 nm infrared light: a preliminary study,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 175–182, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. N. R. S. Santos, J. B. M. Sobrinho, P. F. Almeida et al., “Influence of the combination of infrared and red laser light on the healing of cutaneous wounds infected by Staphylococcus aureus,” Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 177–182, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. K. A. Muili, S. Gopalakrishnan, S. L. Meyer, J. T. Eells, and J.-A. Lyons, “Amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice by photobiomodulation induced by 670 nm light,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 1, Article ID e30655, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. M. R. Hamblin, “Shining light on the head: photobiomodulation for brain disorders,” BBA Clinical, vol. 6, pp. 113–124, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. E. M. Cela, A. Friedrich, M. L. Paz, S. I. Vanzulli, J. Leoni, and D. H. González Maglio, “Time-course study of different innate immune mediators produced by UV-irradiated skin: comparative effects of short and daily versus a single harmful UV exposure,” Immunology, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 82–93, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. S. P. Hong, M. J. Kim, M.-Y. Jung et al., “Biopositive effects of low-dose UVB on epidermis: coordinate upregulation of antimicrobial peptides and permeability barrier reinforcement,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 128, no. 12, pp. 2880–2887, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. N. M. Khaskhely, M. Maruno, H. Uezato et al., “Low-dose UVB contributes to host resistance against Leishmania amazonensis infection in mice through induction of gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha cytokines,” Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 677–686, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus