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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 2106342, 8 pages
Research Article

Early Administration of Glutamine Protects Cardiomyocytes from Post-Cardiac Arrest Acidosis

1Department of Emergency Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan
2School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
3School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
4Department of Emergency Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
5Department of Public Health, College of Health Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
6Bioresource Collection and Research Center, Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan
7Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan
8Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Genetic Engineering, Graduate School, Kasetsart University, Bangkhen Campus, Bangkok, Thailand
9Division of Pediatric General Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan
10College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan

Received 14 September 2016; Accepted 14 November 2016

Academic Editor: Kazuyoshi Suenari

Copyright © 2016 Yan-Ren Lin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Postcardiac arrest acidosis can decrease survival. Effective medications without adverse side effects are still not well characterized. We aimed to analyze whether early administration of glutamine could improve survival and protect cardiomyocytes from postcardiac arrest acidosis using animal and cell models. Forty Wistar rats with postcardiac arrest acidosis (blood pH < 7.2) were included. They were divided into study (500 mg/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, ) and control (normal saline, ) groups. Each of the rats received resuscitation. The outcomes were compared between the two groups. In addition, cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells were exposed to HBSS with different pH levels (7.3 or 6.5) or to culture medium (control). Apoptosis-related markers and beating function were analyzed. We found that the duration of survival was significantly longer in the study group (). In addition, in pH 6.5 or pH 7.3 HBSS buffer, the expression levels of cell stress (p53) and apoptosis (caspase-3, Bcl-xL) markers were significantly lower in cardiomyocytes treated with 50 mM L-glutamine than those without L-glutamine (RT-PCR). L-glutamine also increased the beating function of cardiomyocytes, especially at the lower pH level (6.5). More importantly, glutamine decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased these cells’ beating function at a low pH level.