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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 2450682, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2450682
Research Article

West Nile Virus Circulation in Mosquitoes in Greece (2010–2013)

1Department of Parasitology, Entomology and Tropical Diseases, National School of Public Health, 11521 Athens, Greece
2Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 15123 Athens, Greece
3School of Medicine, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Thessaly, 41500 Larissa, Greece
4European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, 17165 Solna, Sweden
5Molecular Biology Laboratory, 401 General Military Hospital of Athens, 11525 Athens, Greece

Received 3 December 2015; Accepted 10 April 2016

Academic Editor: Jean P. Gonzalez

Copyright © 2016 Eleni Patsoula et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background of the Study. Following a large West Nile virus (WNV) epidemic in Northern Greece in 2010, an active mosquito surveillance system was implemented, for a 3-year period (2011, 2012, and 2013). Description of the Study Site and Methodology. Using mainly CO2 mosquito traps, mosquito collections were performed. Samples were pooled by date of collection, location, and species and examined for the presence of WNV. Results. Positive pools were detected in different areas of the country. In 2010, MIR and MLE values of 1.92 (95% CI: 0.00–4.57) and 2.30 (95% CI: 0.38–7.49) were calculated for the Serres Regional Unit in Central Macedonia Region. In 2011, the highest MIR value of 3.71(95% CI: 1.52–5.91) was recorded in the Regions of Central Greece and Thessaly. In 2012, MIR and MLE values for the whole country were 2.03 (95% CI: 1.73–2.33) and 2.15 (95% CI: 1.86–2.48), respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In 2013, in the Regional Unit of Attica, the one outbreak epicenter, MIR and MLE values for Cx. pipiens were 10.75 (95% CI: 7.52–13.99) and 15.76 (95% CI: 11.66–20.65), respectively. Significance of Results/Conclusions. The contribution of a mosquito-based surveillance system targeting WNV transmission is highlighted through the obtained data, as in most regions positive mosquito pools were detected prior to the date of symptom onset of human cases. Dissemination of the results on time to Public Health Authorities resulted in planning and application of public health interventions in local level.