BioMed Research International / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Height and Risk of Hip Fracture: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

Table 1

Characteristics of epidemiological studies of height and risk of hip fracture included in the meta-analysis.

StudyCohortAge (years)Number of cases/number of participantsFollow-up yearsEndpoint ascertainmentSexExposure level (cm)2RR (95% CI)Adjustment for confounders

Paganini-Hill et al., 1991, US. [15]⁢The Leisure World Study⁢Median 73⁢418/13,649⁢7⁢Medical records⁢Female≧165.1 versus ≦157.5 1.26 (0.98, 1.62)Age⁢
Male≧180.3 versus ≦170.2 1.48 (0.86, 2.55)

Meyer et al., 1993, Norway [11]⁢National Health Screening Service (1974–1990)35–49⁢210/52,313⁢10.9⁢Medical records⁢Female≧170 versus <1553.62 (1.46, 8.97)Age⁢
Male≧185 versus <1702.92 (0.94, 9.05)

Meyer et al., 1995, Norway [12]⁢National Health Screening Service (1963–1975)⁢50–89⁢6,087/673,848⁢16.4⁢Death certificates⁢Female⁢A1: >165 versus ≦1571.26 (0.74, 1.68)Age⁢
A2: >163 versus ≦1561.10 (0.96, 1.26)
A3: >161 versus ≦1541.19 (1.04, 1.35)
A4: >160 versus ≦1531.07 (0.81, 1.41)
Male⁢A1: >178 versus ≦1700.98 (0.68, 1.42)
A2: >176 versus ≦1681.20 (0.98, 1.45)
A3: >175 versus ≦1671.10 (0.90, 1.33)
A4: >174 versus ≦1651.00 (0.67, 1.51)

Hemenway et al., 1995, US. [10]Nurses Health Study35–59243/92,80410Self-report, confirmed by medical recordsFemale≧172.7 versus 157.52.40 (1.43, 4.02)Age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption

Owusu et al., 1998, US. [14]Health Professionals Follow-Up Study40–7556/43,0538Self-reportMale≧188 versus ≦1683.97 (1.28, 12.3)Age, weight, calcium intake, smoking, alcohol consumption, waist-to-hip ratio

Opotowsky et al., 2003, US. [13]⁢NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study⁢40–74⁢203/4,264⁢22⁢Medical records⁢Female⁢B1: ≧168.3 versus ≦155.23.91 (1.37, 11.13)Age, weight, age at menopause, hormone use, recreational activity, nonrecreational activity, alcohol use, history of fracture, history of chronic diseases
B2: ≧165.4 versus ≦152.02.01 (1.18, 3.44)
B3: ≧165.4 versus ≦152.11.27 (0.70, 2.29)

Benetou et al., 2011, 5 European countries1 [16]EPIC-Elderly-NAH Study60–86261/27,9828Self-report or medical recordsFemale/male≧180 versus ≦1491.59 (0.60, 4.22)Age, educational level, smoking status, history of diabetes mellitus

Including Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, and Sweden.
2A1: 50–59 years; A2: 60–69 years; A3: 70–79 years; A4: 80–89 years; B1: 40–59 years; B2: 60–69 years; B3: 70–74 years.

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