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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 2869572, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2869572
Review Article

Synergistic Effects of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Bone Morphogenetic Proteins Induced Bone Formation In Vivo: Influencing Factors and Future Research Directions

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, Beijing 100730, China
2Central Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, Beijing 100730, China
3Beijing Key Laboratory for Genetic Research of Bone and Joint Disease, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, Beijing 100730, China

Received 7 August 2016; Revised 16 October 2016; Accepted 24 October 2016

Academic Editor: Martín F. Desimone

Copyright © 2016 Bo Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), as key mediators in angiogenesis and osteogenesis, are used in a combined delivery manner as a novel strategy in bone tissue engineering. VEGF has the potential to enhance BMPs induced bone formation. Both gene delivery and material-based delivery systems were incorporated in previous studies to investigate the synergistic effects of VEGF and BMPs. However, their results were controversial due to variation of methods incorporated in different studies. Factors influencing the synergistic effects of VEGF on BMPs induced bone formation were identified and analyzed in this review to reduce confusion on this issue. The potential mechanisms and directions of future studies were also proposed here. Further investigating mechanisms of the synergistic effects and optimizing these influencing factors will help to generate more effective bone regeneration.