Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 3180954, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3180954
Review Article

The Potential Role of Graphene in Developing the Next Generation of Endomaterials

1First Department of Surgery, Vascular Unit, Laiko General Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
2Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA
3Vascular Unit, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK

Received 12 June 2016; Accepted 24 October 2016

Academic Editor: Jinsong Ren

Copyright © 2016 Nikolaos Patelis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. N. R. Rao, A. K. Sood, K. S. Subrahmanyam, and A. Govindaraj, “Graphene: the new two-dimensional nanomaterial,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 48, no. 42, pp. 7752–7777, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Latil and L. Henrard, “Charge carriers in few-layer graphene films,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 97, no. 3, Article ID 036803, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao et al., “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 902–907, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. X. Yang, Y. Tu, L. Li, S. Shang, and X.-M. Tao, “Well-dispersed chitosan/graphene oxide nanocomposites,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 1707–1713, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. Bai, C. Li, X. Wang, and G. Shi, “A pH-sensitive graphene oxide composite hydrogel,” Chemical Communications, vol. 46, no. 14, pp. 2376–2378, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. Fan, L. Wang, K. Zhao et al., “Fabrication, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of graphene-reinforced chitosan composites,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 2345–2351, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. D. Stoller, S. Park, Y. Zhu, J. An, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based ultracapacitors,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 3498–3502, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. Wang, K. Lee, Y.-Y. Sun et al., “Graphene oxide as an ideal substrate for hydrogen storage,” ACS Nano, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 2995–3000, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C.-H. Lu, H.-H. Yang, C.-L. Zhu, X. Chen, and G.-N. Chen, “A graphene platform for sensing biomolecules,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 48, no. 26, pp. 4785–4787, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. Qu, Y. Liu, J.-B. Baek, and L. Dai, “Nitrogen-doped graphene as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction in fuel cells,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1321–1326, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Guo and S. Dong, “Graphene nanosheet: synthesis, molecular engineering, thin film, hybrids, and energy and analytical applications,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 2644–2672, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Feng and Z. Liu, “Graphene in biomedicine: opportunities and challenges,” Nanomedicine, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 317–324, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. P. Loh, Q. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nature Chemistry, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 1015–1024, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Y. Wang, Z. Li, J. Wang, J. Li, and Y. Lin, “Graphene and graphene oxide: biofunctionalization and applications in biotechnology,” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 205–212, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Jiang, “Chemical preparation of graphene-based nanomaterials and their applications in chemical and biological sensors,” Small, vol. 7, no. 17, pp. 2413–2427, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Kumar and C. H. Lee, “Synthesis and biomedical applications of graphene: present and future trends,” in Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials: Advances in Graphene Science, D. M. Aliofkhazraei, Ed., InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  17. A. Eftekhari and B. Yazdani, “Initiating electropolymerization on graphene sheets in graphite oxide structure,” Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 2204–2213, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. V. Nalla, L. Polavarapu, K. Kumar Manga et al., “Transient photoconductivity and femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of a conjugated polymer-graphene oxide composite,” Nanotechnology, vol. 21, no. 41, Article ID 415203, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. R. Nair, H. A. Wu, P. N. Jayaram, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. K. Geim, “Unimpeded permeation of water through helium-leak-tight graphene-based membranes,” Science, vol. 335, no. 6067, pp. 442–444, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Z. Yan, Z. Peng, G. Casillas et al., “Rebar graphene,” ACS Nano, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 5061–5068, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 109–162, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Z. Liu, J. T. Robinson, X. Sun, and H. Dai, “PEGylated nanographene oxide for delivery of water-insoluble cancer drugs,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 130, no. 33, pp. 10876–10877, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Z. Liu, J. T. Robinson, S. M. Tabakman, K. Yang, and H. Dai, “Carbon materials for drug delivery & cancer therapy,” Materials Today, vol. 14, no. 7-8, pp. 316–323, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. W. Paul and C. P. Sharma, “Blood compatibility and biomedical applications of graphene,” Trends in Biomaterials and Artificial Organs, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 91–94, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. K. Roy and K.-R. Lee, “Biomedical applications of diamond-like carbon coatings: a review,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research—Part B Applied Biomaterials, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 72–84, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. Podila, T. Moore, F. Alexis, and A. M. Rao, “Graphene coatings for enhanced hemo-compatibility of nitinol stents,” RSC Advances, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1660–1665, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. Podila, T. Moore, F. Alexis, and A. Rao, “Graphene coatings for biomedical implants,” Journal of Visualized Experiments, no. 73, article e50276, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. Zhang, J. Xia, Q. Zhao, L. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Functional graphene oxide as a nanocarrier for controlled loading and targeted delivery of mixed anticancer drugs,” Small, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 537–544, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. X. Yang, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, Y. Ma, Y. Huang, and Y. Chen, “High-efficiency loading and controlled release of doxorubicin hydrochloride on graphene oxide,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 112, no. 45, pp. 17554–17558, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. L. Weaver, J. M. Larosa, X. Luo, and X. T. Cui, “Electrically controlled drug delivery from graphene oxide nanocomposite films,” ACS Nano, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1834–1843, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. Y. Lee, Z. Khatun, J.-H. Lee, Y.-K. Lee, and I. In, “Blood compatible graphene/heparin conjugate through noncovalent chemistry,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 336–341, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. Xue, B. Peng, M. Xue et al., “Integration of molecular and enzymatic catalysts on graphene for biomimetic generation of antithrombotic species,” Nature Communications, vol. 5, article no. 3200, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Xue, B. Peng, M. Xue et al., “Integration of molecular and enzymatic catalysts on graphene for biomimetic generation of antithrombotic species,” Nature Communications, vol. 5, article 3200, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Y. Zhang, S. F. Ali, E. Dervishi et al., “Cytotoxicity effects of graphene and single-wall carbon nanotubes in neural phaeochromocytoma-derived pc12 cells,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 3181–3186, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Wang, J. Ruan, H. Song et al., “Biocompatibility of Graphene Oxide,” Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. Hu, C. Peng, W. Luo et al., “Graphene-based antibacterial paper,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 4317–4323, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. A. Mbeh, O. Akhavan, T. Javanbakht, M. Mahmoudi, and L. Yahia, “Cytotoxicity of protein corona-graphene oxide nanoribbons on human epithelial cells,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 320, pp. 596–601, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. O. Akhavan, E. Ghaderi, H. Emamy, and F. Akhavan, “Genotoxicity of graphene nanoribbons in human mesenchymal stem cells,” Carbon, vol. 54, pp. 419–431, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. O. Akhavan, E. Ghaderi, and A. Akhavan, “Size-dependent genotoxicity of graphene nanoplatelets in human stem cells,” Biomaterials, vol. 33, no. 32, pp. 8017–8025, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. X. Sun, Z. Liu, K. Welsher et al., “Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery,” Nano Research, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 203–212, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. X. Zhang, J. Yin, C. Peng et al., “Distribution and biocompatibility studies of graphene oxide in mice after intravenous administration,” Carbon, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 986–995, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. E. Hashemi, O. Akhavan, M. Shamsara, R. Rahighi, A. Esfandiar, and A. R. Tayefeh, “Cyto and genotoxicities of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets on spermatozoa,” RSC Advances, vol. 4, no. 52, pp. 27213–27223, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. K. Yang, S. Zhang, G. Zhang, X. Sun, S.-T. Lee, and Z. Liu, “Graphene in mice: ultrahigh in vivo tumor uptake and efficient photothermal therapy,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 3318–3323, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. O. Akhavan, E. Ghaderi, and H. Emamy, “Nontoxic concentrations of PEGylated graphene nanoribbons for selective cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 22, no. 38, pp. 20626–20633, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. M. Monaco and M. Giugliano, “Carbon-based smart nanomaterials in biomedicine and neuroengineering,” Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, vol. 5, pp. 1849–1863, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. O. Akhavan, E. Ghaderi, E. Hashemi, and E. Akbari, “Dose-dependent effects of nanoscale graphene oxide on reproduction capability of mammals,” Carbon, vol. 95, Article ID 10182, pp. 309–317, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. I. Mikhalovska, M. Santin, S. P. Denyer et al., “Fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion to metal and carbon coatings,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 1032–1039, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. G. Dearnaley and J. H. Arps, “Biomedical applications of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings: a review,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 200, no. 7, pp. 2518–2524, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. O. Akhavan and E. Ghaderi, “Toxicity of graphene and graphene oxide nanowalls against bacteria,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 5731–5736, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov et al., “Electric field in atomically thin carbon films,” Science, vol. 306, no. 5696, pp. 666–669, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin et al., “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 30, pp. 10451–10453, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. O. N. Ruiz, K. A. S. Fernando, B. Wang et al., “Graphene oxide: a nonspecific enhancer of cellular growth,” ACS Nano, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 8100–8107, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. T. S. Sreeprasad, M. S. Maliyekkal, K. Deepti, K. Chaudhari, P. L. Xavier, and T. Pradeep, “Transparent, luminescent, antibacterial and patternable film forming composites of graphene oxide/reduced graphene oxide,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 2643–2654, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. M. Santos, M. C. R. Tria, R. A. M. V. Vergara, F. Ahmed, R. C. Advincula, and D. F. Rodrigues, “Antimicrobial graphene polymer (PVK-GO) nanocomposite films,” Chemical Communications, vol. 47, no. 31, pp. 8892–8894, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. I. E. Mejías Carpio, C. M. Santos, X. Wei, and D. F. Rodrigues, “Toxicity of a polymer-graphene oxide composite against bacterial planktonic cells, biofilms, and mammalian cells,” Nanoscale, vol. 4, no. 15, pp. 4746–4756, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Some, S.-M. Ho, P. Dua et al., “Dual functions of highly potent graphene derivative-poly-l-lysine composites to inhibit bacteria and support human cells,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 7151–7161, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. K. Krishnamoorthy, M. Veerapandian, L.-H. Zhang, K. Yun, and S. J. Kim, “Antibacterial efficiency of graphene nanosheets against pathogenic bacteria via lipid peroxidation,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 116, no. 32, pp. 17280–17287, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. Liu, M. Hu, T. H. Zeng et al., “Lateral dimension-dependent antibacterial activity of graphene oxide sheets,” Langmuir, vol. 28, no. 33, pp. 12364–12372, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. O. Akhavan, E. Ghaderi, and A. Esfandiar, “Wrapping bacteria by graphene nanosheets for isolation from environment, reactivation by sonication, and inactivation by near-infrared irradiation,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 115, no. 19, pp. 6279–6288, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. O. Akhavan and E. Ghaderi, “Escherichia coli bacteria reduce graphene oxide to bactericidal graphene in a self-limiting manner,” Carbon, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1853–1860, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. Zhang, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “Green synthesis of graphene oxide sheets decorated by silver nanoprisms and their anti-bacterial properties,” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, vol. 105, no. 9, pp. 1181–1186, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. R. Das, R. K. Sarma, R. Saikia, V. S. Kale, M. V. Shelke, and P. Sengupta, “Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in an aqueous suspension of graphene oxide sheets and its antimicrobial activity,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 16–22, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. Gurunathan, J. W. Han, A. Abdal Dayem, V. Eppakayala, and J.-H. Kim, “Oxidative stress-mediated antibacterial activity of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 7, pp. 5901–5914, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Y. Wang, Y. Li, L. Tang, J. Lu, and J. Li, “Application of graphene-modified electrode for selective detection of dopamine,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 889–892, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. X. Dong, J. Cheng, J. Li, and Y. Wang, “Graphene as a novel matrix for the analysis of small molecules by MALDI-TOF MS,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 82, no. 14, pp. 6208–6214, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. H. Chang, L. Tang, Y. Wang, J. Jiang, and J. Li, “Graphene fluorescence resonance energy transfer aptasensor for the thrombin detection,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 2341–2346, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. Tang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, H. Feng, J. Lu, and J. Li, “Preparation, structure, and electrochemical properties of reduced graphene sheet films,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 19, no. 17, pp. 2782–2789, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. Tang, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. Li, “DNA-directed self-assembly of graphene oxide with applications to ultrasensitive oligonucleotide assay,” ACS Nano, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 3817–3822, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. Y. Wang, Y. Shao, D. W. Matson, J. Li, and Y. Lin, “Nitrogen-doped graphene and its application in electrochemical biosensing,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 1790–1798, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. W. Chen, P. Yi, Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Deng, and Z. Zhang, “Composites of aminodextran-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles and graphene oxide for cellular magnetic resonance imaging,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 4085–4091, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. C. Peng, W. Hu, Y. Zhou, C. Fan, and Q. Huang, “Intracellular imaging with a graphene-based fluorescent probe,” Small, vol. 6, no. 15, pp. 1686–1692, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. D. Goldfarb, J. Houk, J. Moore Sr., and W. Catron, “Modified graphite-expanded PTFE (G-PTFE) for use as a superior vena cava (SVC) substitute,” Transactions of the American Society for Artificial Organs, vol. 24, pp. 201–208, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. V. L. Gott, R. L. Daggett, D. E. Koepke, G. G. Rowe, and W. P. Young, “Replacement of the canine pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery with a graphite-coated valve prosthesis,” The Journal of tHoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 44, pp. 713–723, 1962. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. V. L. Gott, R. L. Daggett, D. E. Koepke, J. D. Whiffen, R. C. Dutton, and W. P. Young, “Replacement of the canine mitral valve with a graphite coated hinged-leaflet valve,” Surgery Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. R. E. Fraser, W. L. Halseth, B. Johnson, and B. C. Paton, “Experimental replacement of the superior vena cava: autologous veins, free inverted jejunal grafts, and dacron grafts treated with graphite-benzalkonium-heparin,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 378–385, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. H. Dai, “Carbon nanotubes: opportunities and challenges,” Surface Science, vol. 500, no. 1–3, pp. 218–241, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. N. I. Kovtyukhova, P. J. Ollivier, B. R. Martin et al., “Layer-by-layer assembly of ultrathin composite films from micron-sized graphite oxide sheets and polycations,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 771–778, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. C. Shan, H. Yang, D. Han, Q. Zhang, A. Ivaska, and L. Niu, “Water-soluble graphene covalently functionalized by biocompatible poly-L-lysine,” Langmuir, vol. 25, no. 20, pp. 12030–12033, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. H. Lei, L. Mi, X. Zhou et al., “Adsorption of double-stranded DNA to graphene oxide preventing enzymatic digestion,” Nanoscale, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 3888–3892, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. Zhang, F. Zhang, H. Yang et al., “Graphene oxide as a matrix for enzyme immobilization,” Langmuir, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 6083–6085, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. B. Chen, M. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Huang, J. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Polyethylenimine-functionalized graphene oxide as an efficient gene delivery vector,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 7736–7741, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. L. Feng, S. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Graphene based gene transfection,” Nanoscale, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1252–1257, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. Y. Yang, A. M. Asiri, Z. Tang, D. Du, and Y. Lin, “Graphene based materials for biomedical applications,” Materials Today, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 365–373, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. H. Coaker, “Electrically controlled drug-delivery system may help minimize side effects: remotely controlled drug-delivery device may be a step towards ‘smart’ closed-loop drug-eluting systems,” Nanomedicine, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 569–570, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. T. Zeller, A. Rastan, M. Kliem et al., “Impact of carbon coating on the restenosis rate after stenting of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis,” Journal of Endovascular Therapy, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 605–611, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. M. C. Morice, H. P. Bestehorn, D. Carrie et al., “Direct stenting of de novo coronary stenoses with tacrolimus-eluting versus carbon-coated carbostents. The randomized JUPITER II trial,” EuroIntervention: Journal of EuroPCR in Collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  87. C. Briguori, G. Visconti, F. De Micco, and A. Focaccio, “The avantgarde carbostent in patients scheduled for undelayable noncardiac surgery,” Thrombosis, vol. 2012, Article ID 372371, 6 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  88. D. Carrié, T. Lefevre, R. Cherradi et al., “Does carbofilm coating affect in-stent intimal proliferation? A randomized trial comparing Rx multi-link penta and Tecnic Carbostent™ stents,” Journal of Interventional Cardiology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 381–388, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. G. B. Danzi, C. Capuano, M. Sesana et al., “Six-month clinical and angiographic outcomes of the Tecnic Carbostent coronary system: the phantom IV study,” The Journal of Invasive Cardiology, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 641–644, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  90. K. Gutensohn, C. Beythien, J. Bau et al., “In vitro analyses of diamond-like carbon coated stents. Reduction of metal ion release, platelet activation, and thrombogenicity,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 577–585, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. F. Airoldi, A. Colombo, D. Tavano et al., “Comparison of diamond-like carbon-coated stents versus uncoated stainless steel stents in coronary artery disease,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 474–477, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. J.-H. Jung, P.-K. Min, J.-Y. Kim et al., “Does a carbon ion-implanted surface reduce the restenosis rate of coronary stents?” Cardiology, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 72–75, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. Y.-H. Kim, C. W. Lee, M.-K. Hong et al., “Randomized comparison of carbon ion-implanted stent versus bare metal stent in coronary artery disease: the Asian Pacific Multicenter Arthos Stent Study (PASS) trial,” American Heart Journal, vol. 149, no. 2, pp. 336–341, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. S. Linder, W. Pinkowski, and M. Aepfelbacher, “Adhesion, cytoskeletal architecture and activation status of primary human macrophages on a diamond-like carbon coated surface,” Biomaterials, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 767–773, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. T. Yao, B. D. Choules, J. P. Rust, and M. W. King, “The development of an in vitro test method for predicting the abrasion resistance of textile and metal components of endovascular stent grafts,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 488–499, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. C. S. Obayi, R. Tolouei, A. Mostavan et al., “Effect of grain sizes on mechanical properties and biodegradation behavior of pure iron for cardiovascular stent application,” Biomatter, vol. 6, no. 1, Article ID e959874, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. A. Major, R. Guidoin, G. Soulez et al., “Implant degradation and poor healing after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: an analysis of explanted stent-grafts,” Journal of Endovascular Therapy, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 457–467, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. D. P. Dowling, P. V. Kola, K. Donnelly et al., “Evaluation of diamond-like carbon-coated orthopaedic implants,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 6, no. 2–4, pp. 390–393, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. J. S. Bunch, S. S. Verbridge, J. S. Alden et al., “Impermeable atomic membranes from graphene sheets,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 2458–2462, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. D. L. Akers, Y. H. Du, and R. F. Kempczinski, “The effect of carbon coating and porosity on early patency of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts: an experimental study,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 10–15, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. M. J. Hajipour, J. Raheb, O. Akhavan et al., “Personalized, disease-specific protein corona influences the therapeutic impact of graphene oxide,” Nanoscale, vol. 7, no. 19, pp. 8978–8994, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. C. Nethravathi and M. Rajamathi, “Chemically modified graphene sheets produced by the solvothermal reduction of colloidal dispersions of graphite oxide,” Carbon, vol. 46, no. 14, pp. 1994–1998, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. R. Köster, D. Vieluf, M. Kiehn et al., “Nickel and molybdenum contact allergies in patients with coronary in-stent restenosis,” The Lancet, vol. 356, no. 9245, pp. 1895–1897, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus