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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 3801570, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3801570
Review Article

Ocular Complications of Diabetes and Therapeutic Approaches

1Department of Nutrition & Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
2Department of Cell Biology, Dean McGee Eye Research Institute, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
3Department of Ophthalmology, Dean McGee Eye Research Institute, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dean McGee Eye Research Institute, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA

Received 3 February 2016; Accepted 2 March 2016

Academic Editor: Ciro Costagliola

Copyright © 2016 Victoria J. Vieira-Potter et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease defined by elevated blood glucose (BG). DM is a global epidemic and the prevalence is anticipated to continue to increase. The ocular complications of DM negatively impact the quality of life and carry an extremely high economic burden. While systemic control of BG can slow the ocular complications they cannot stop them, especially if clinical symptoms are already present. With the advances in biodegradable polymers, implantable ocular devices can slowly release medication to stop, and in some cases reverse, diabetic complications in the eye. In this review we discuss the ocular complications associated with DM, the treatments available with a focus on localized treatments, and what promising treatments are on the horizon.