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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 3821579, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3821579
Review Article

The Relationship between Neurocircuitry Dysfunctions and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review

Shanghai Changning District Mental Health Center, Green Land Hospital of Bio-X Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200335, China

Received 30 April 2016; Accepted 19 July 2016

Academic Editor: Toshiyuki Sawaguchi

Copyright © 2016 Yuncheng Zhu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The prefrontal cortex is the superlative structure of brain that needs the longest developmental and maturational duration that highlights the region of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in neuroimaging studies. Prefrontal cortex functions generate enormously complex and its abundant feedback neurocircuitries with subcortical structures such as striatum and thalamus established through dual neural fibers. These microneurocircuitries are called corticostriatothalamocortical (CSTC) circuits. The CSTC circuits paly an essential role in flexible behaviors. The impaired circuits increase the risk of behavioral and psychological symptoms. ADHD is an especial developmental stage of paediatric disease. It has been reported that the CSTC circuits dysfunctions in ADHD are related to homologous symptoms. This study aimed to review the symptoms of ADHD and discuss the recent advances on the effects of the disease as well as the new progress of treatments with each circuit.