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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 3939815, 7 pages
Research Article

Data-Driven User Feedback: An Improved Neurofeedback Strategy considering the Interindividual Variability of EEG Features

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-731, Republic of Korea

Received 27 April 2016; Accepted 25 July 2016

Academic Editor: Asode A. Shetty

Copyright © 2016 Chang-Hee Han et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


It has frequently been reported that some users of conventional neurofeedback systems can experience only a small portion of the total feedback range due to the large interindividual variability of EEG features. In this study, we proposed a data-driven neurofeedback strategy considering the individual variability of electroencephalography (EEG) features to permit users of the neurofeedback system to experience a wider range of auditory or visual feedback without a customization process. The main idea of the proposed strategy is to adjust the ranges of each feedback level using the density in the offline EEG database acquired from a group of individuals. Twenty-two healthy subjects participated in offline experiments to construct an EEG database, and five subjects participated in online experiments to validate the performance of the proposed data-driven user feedback strategy. Using the optimized bin sizes, the number of feedback levels that each individual experienced was significantly increased to 139% and 144% of the original results with uniform bin sizes in the offline and online experiments, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the use of our data-driven neurofeedback strategy could effectively increase the overall range of feedback levels that each individual experienced during neurofeedback training.