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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 4052846, 10 pages
Research Article

The Functional Haplotypes of CHRM3 Modulate mRNA Expression and Associate with Bladder Cancer among a Chinese Han Population in Kaohsiung City

1Division of Urology, Department of Medicine, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
2Department and Graduate Institute of Aquaculture, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
3Department of Oceanography, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
4Department of Aquaculture, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan
5Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
6Asia-Pacific Biotech Developing Inc., Kaohsiung, Taiwan
7Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
8Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
9Cancer Biology and Drug Discovery Ph.D. Program, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
10Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan

Received 18 August 2016; Accepted 7 November 2016

Academic Editor: Heiko Reutter

Copyright © 2016 Chiang-Ting Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Bladder cancer is one of the major cancer types and both environmental factors and genetic background play important roles in its pathology. Kaohsiung is a high industrialized city in Taiwan, and here we focused on this region to evaluate the genetic effects on bladder cancer. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (CHRM3) was reported as a key receptor in different cancer types. CHRM3 is located at 1q42-43 which was reported to associate with bladder cancer. Our study attempted to delineate whether genetic variants of CHRM3 contribute to bladder cancer in Chinese Han population in south Taiwan. Five selected SNPs (rs2165870, rs10802789, rs685550, rs7520974, and rs3738435) were genotyped for 30 bladder cancer patients and 60 control individuals and genetic association studies were performed. Five haplotypes (GTTAT, ATTGT, GCTAC, ACTAC, and ACCAC) were found significantly associated with low CHRM3 mRNA level and contributed to increased susceptibility of bladder cancer in Kaohsiung city after rigid 10000 consecutive permutation tests. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic association study that reveals the genetic contribution of CHRM3 gene in bladder cancer etiology.