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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 4302470, 9 pages
Research Article

Systematic Identification and Bioinformatic Analysis of MicroRNAs in Response to Infections of Coxsackievirus A16 and Enterovirus 71

Key Laboratory of Enteric Pathogenic Microbiology, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, No. 172 Jiangsu Road, Nanjing 210009, China

Received 1 August 2016; Accepted 29 September 2016

Academic Editor: Cheng-Feng Qin

Copyright © 2016 Zheng Zhu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), mainly caused by coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, remains a serious public health issue with thousands of newly diagnostic cases each year since 2008 in China. The mechanisms underlying viral infection, however, are elusive to date. In the present study, we systematically investigated the host cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns in response to CVA16 and EV71 infections. Through microarray examination, 27 miRNAs (15 upregulated and 12 downregulated) were found to be coassociated with the replication process of two viruses, while the expression levels of 15 and 5 miRNAs were significantly changed in CVA16- and EV71-infected cells, respectively. A great number of target genes of 27 common differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted by combined use of two computational target prediction algorithms, TargetScan and MiRanda. Comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of target genes in GO categories and KEGG pathways indicated the involvement of diverse biological functions and signaling pathways during viral infection. These results provide an overview of the roles of miRNAs in virus-host interaction, which will contribute to further understanding of HFMD pathological mechanisms.