Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 4302706, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4302706
Research Article

Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Propolis Reduces the Expression and Activity of Streptococcus mutans Glucosyltransferases at Subinhibitory Concentrations

1Center of Molecular Biology and Pharmacogenetics, Scientific and Technological Bioresource Nucleus (BIOREN), Universidad de La Frontera, Avenida Francisco Salazar 01145, 4811230 Temuco, Chile
2Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Químicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad San Sebastián, Campus Los Leones, Lota 2465, 7510157 Providencia, Santiago, Chile
3Departamento de Ciencias Químicas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad de La Frontera, Avenida Francisco Salazar, 01145 Temuco, Chile

Received 10 December 2015; Accepted 8 March 2016

Academic Editor: Kimon A. Karatzas

Copyright © 2016 Jorge Jesús Veloz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Matsumoto-Nakano, K. Fujita, and T. Ooshima, “Comparison of glucan-binding proteins in cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans,” Oral Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 30–35, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. A. Aas, B. J. Paster, L. N. Stokes, I. Olsen, and F. E. Dewhirst, “Defining the normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 5721–5732, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. A. Bagramian, F. Garcia-Godoy, and A. R. Volpe, “The global increase in dental caries. A pending public health crisis,” American Journal of Dentistry, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 3–8, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Vauzour, A. Rodriguez-Mateos, G. Corona, M. J. Oruna-Concha, and J. P. E. Spencer, “Polyphenols and human health: prevention of disease and mechanisms of action,” Nutrients, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 1106–1131, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Castaldo and F. Capasso, “Propolis, an old remedy used in modern medicine,” Fitoterapia, vol. 73, supplement 1, pp. S1–S6, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. B. Daleprane, V. da Silva Freitas, A. Pacheco et al., “Anti-atherogenic and anti-angiogenic activities of polyphenols from propolis,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 557–566, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. Barrientos, C. L. Herrera, G. Montenegro et al., “Chemical and botanical characterization of chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus,” Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 577–585, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. Saavedra, L. Barrientos, C. L. Herrera, M. Alvear, G. Montenegro, and L. A. Salazar, “Effect of Chilean propolis on cariogenic bacteria Lactobacillus fermentum,” Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 117–125, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. Koo, P. L. Rosalen, J. A. Cury, Y. K. Park, M. Ikegaki, and A. Sattler, “Effect of Apis mellifera propolis from two Brazilian regions on caries development in desalivated rats,” Caries Research, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 393–400, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. V. Bankova, “Chemical diversity of propolis and the problem of standardization,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 100, no. 1-2, pp. 114–117, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Popova, V. Bankova, D. Butovska et al., “Validated methods for the quantification of biologically active constituents of poplar-type propolis,” Phytochemical Analysis, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 235–340, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. J. Veloz, N. Saavedra, A. Lillo, M. Alvear, L. Barrientos, and L. A. Salazar, “Antibiofilm activity of chilean propolis on Streptococcus mutans is influenced by the year of collection,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 291351, 6 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. Ooshima, M. Matsumura, T. Hoshino, S. Kawabata, S. Sobue, and T. Fujiwara, “Contributions of three glucosyltransferases to sucrose-dependent adherence of Streptococcus mutans,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 1672–1677, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Z. T. Wen and R. A. Burne, “Functional genomics approach to identifying genes required for biofilm development by Streptococcus mutans,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 1196–1203, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. W. Krzyściak, A. Jurczak, D. Kościelniak, B. Bystrowska, and A. Skalniak, “The virulence of Streptococcus mutans and the ability to form biofilms,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 499–515, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. D. Senadheera, B. Guggenheim, G. A. Spatafora et al., “A VicRK signal transduction system in Streptococcus mutans affects gtfBCD, gbpB, and ftf expression, biofilm formation, and genetic competence development,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 187, no. 12, pp. 4064–4076, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. Zeng, S. C. Choi, C. G. Danko, A. Siepel, M. J. Stanhope, and R. A. Burne, “Gene regulation by CcpA and catabolite repression explored by RNA-Seq in Streptococcus mutans,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 3, Article ID e60465, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S.-J. Ahn, S.-J. Ahn, Z. T. Wen, L. J. Brady, and R. A. Burne, “Characteristics of biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans in the presence of saliva,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 76, no. 9, pp. 4259–4268, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. J. Brady, S. E. Maddocks, M. R. Larson et al., “The changing faces of Streptococcus antigen I/II polypeptide family adhesins,” Molecular Microbiology, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 276–286, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. A. Salazar, C. Vásquez, A. Almuna et al., “Molecular detection of cariogenic streptococci in saliva,” International Journal of Morphology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 951–958, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. CLSI, “Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility test for bacteria that grow aerobically; approved standard—eight edition,” CLSI Document M07-A8, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), Wayne, Pa, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  22. T. D. Schmittgen and K. J. Livak, “Analyzing real-time PCR data by the comparative CT method,” Nature Protocols, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1101–1108, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Koo, P. L. Rosalen, J. A. Cury, Y. K. Park, and W. H. Bowen, “Effects of compounds found in propolis on Streptococcus mutans growth and on glucosyltransferase activity,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 1302–1309, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. Islam, S. N. Khan, I. Haque, M. Alam, M. Mushfiq, and A. U. Khan, “Novel anti-adherence activity of mulberry leaves: inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm by 1-deoxynojirimycin isolated from Morus alba,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 751–757, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Smullen, G. A. Koutsou, H. A. Foster, A. Zumbé, and D. M. Storey, “The antibacterial activity of plant extracts containing polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans,” Caries Research, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 342–349, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Duarte, S. Gregoire, A. P. Singh et al., “Inhibitory effects of cranberry polyphenols on formation and acidogenicity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 257, no. 1, pp. 50–56, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W. Shumi, M. A. Hossain, D.-J. Park, and S. Park, “Inhibitory effects of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on exopolysaccharide production by Streptococcus mutans under microfluidic conditions,” Biochip Journal, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 179–186, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. A. Libério, A. L. A. Pereira, M. J. A. M. Araújo et al., “The potential use of propolis as a cariostatic agent and its actions on mutans group streptococci,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Duarte, P. L. Rosalen, M. F. Hayacibara et al., “The influence of a novel propolis on mutans streptococci biofilms and caries development in rats,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. O. Mattos-Graner, M. H. Napimoga, K. Fukushima, M. J. Duncan, and D. J. Smith, “Comparative analysis of Gtf isozyme production and diversity in isolates of Streptococcus mutans with different biofilm growth phenotypes,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 4586–4592, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. Terao, R. Isoda, J. Murakami, S. Hamada, and S. Kawabata, “Molecular and biological characterization of gtf regulation-associated genes in Streptococcus mutans,” Oral Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 211–217, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Biswas and I. Biswas, “Regulation of the glucosyltransferase (gtfBC) operon by CovR in Streptococcus mutans,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 188, no. 3, pp. 988–998, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P.-M. Chen, J.-Y. Chen, and J.-S. Chia, “Differential regulation of Streptococcus mutans gtfBCD genes in response to copper ions,” Archives of Microbiology, vol. 185, no. 2, pp. 127–135, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Yoshida and H. K. Kuramitsu, “Multiple Streptococcus mutans genes are involved in biofilm formation,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 68, no. 12, pp. 6283–6291, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. N. Stipp, R. B. Gonçalves, J. F. Höfling, D. J. Smith, and R. O. Mattos-Graner, “Transcriptional analysis of gtfB, gtfC, and gbpB and their putative response regulators in several isolates of Streptococcus mutans,” Oral Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 466–473, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. Ayala, J. S. Downey, L. Mashburn-Warren, D. B. Senadheera, D. G. Cvitkovitch, and S. D. Goodman, “A biochemical characterization of the DNA binding activity of the response regulator VicR from streptococcus mutans,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 9, Article ID e108027, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Abranches, M. M. Nascimento, L. Zeng et al., “CcpA regulates central metabolism and virulence gene expression in Streptococcus mutans,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 190, no. 7, pp. 2340–2349, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. M. Browngardt, Z. T. Wen, and R. A. Burne, “RegM is required for optimal fructosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase gene expression in Streptococcus mutans,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 240, no. 1, pp. 75–79, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Rasul, F. M. Millimouno, W. Ali Eltayb, M. Ali, J. Li, and X. Li, “Pinocembrin: a novel natural compound with versatile pharmacological and biological activities,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 379850, 9 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus