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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 4387461, 12 pages
Review Article

Avian Mycobacteriosis: Still Existing Threat to Humans

1Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic
2Institute of Public Health in Ostrava, Partyzanske Namesti 7, 702 00 Ostrava, Czech Republic

Received 17 February 2016; Revised 31 May 2016; Accepted 19 June 2016

Academic Editor: Hesham H. Ali

Copyright © 2016 Michal Slany et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The nontuberculous mycobacteria are typically environmental organisms residing in soil and water. These microorganisms can cause a wide range of clinical diseases; pulmonary disease is most frequent, followed by lymphadenitis in children, skin and soft tissue disease, and rare extra pulmonary or disseminated infections. Mycobacterium avium complex is the second most common cause of pulmonary mycobacterioses after M. tuberculosis. This review covers the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of infection caused by the members of this complex and particularities for the treatment of different disease types and patient populations.